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ACBS 160D1 Week 1 Lectures Notes

by: Jason Zismann

ACBS 160D1 Week 1 Lectures Notes ACBS 160-D1-001

Marketplace > University of Arizona > ACBS 160-D1-001 > ACBS 160D1 Week 1 Lectures Notes
Jason Zismann

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These notes cover what we went over in class in the first week of the course, they will be on the midterm.
Hum+Anml Interl Dom-Pres
Dieter Steklis & Netzin Steklis
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jason Zismann on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ACBS 160-D1-001 at University of Arizona taught by Dieter Steklis & Netzin Steklis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 93 views.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Lecture 1: Overall aim:  understand the biological and cultural dimensions of our relationship to animals  identify consequences for domestications  describe complex role played by pets in modern society  understand moral, philosophical and scientific debates involving animals Major Foci of Course 1. causes & consequences of animal domestication a. use of animals by different cultures b. effect of domestication on course of human history 2. close relationship to particular animals a. how we’ve transformed each other 3. ethical implications of animals used for variety of purposes, especially entertainment & experimentation Content & Structure  pre/post assessment ~2%, attendance ~5%, in class discussions ~5%, discussions ~17%, Quiz ~21%, Midterm& Final ~25%, term paper ~30% Lecture 2:  “Mane Points” o Human brain has natural tendency to categorize o People everywhere tend to place animals and humans in different categories throughout history o Place non-human animals in groups based on use  Categorical brain o Chunking the world  Speech & perception, animate vs. inanimate, kinds of animals  Attitudes towards animals o Factors that affect our attitudes (how we feel/act towards animals)  Religious beliefs(taboos/reincarnation), gender(empathy), aesthetic appeal (furry, cute or not), degree of similarity (physical, cognitive), their use love d Useful & loathed Useful & loved Utility Loathed & detrimental Loved & not useful Loathed Emotio love  Human-animal distinction d o All people make distinctions, but sharpness of boundary varies w/time or culture o Non-western (soft boundary) vs. western (sharp boundary) o Attitudes/behavior – how we treat them follows from categorical distinctions  Non-western views o Many non-western see continuity between animals and humans o Examples:  transmigration, gods being part animal part human, totems, incarnated  pantheism: natural world and human world are one in the same  Western views o Domestication led to animals seen as creatures to be owned/controlled o Speciesism  Aristotle o 384-322 B.C., animals lack rationality, ancient Greek philosopher  Rene Descartes o 1596-1650, viewed animals as automata (no souls), ranked below humans in importance  Immanuel Kant o 1724-1804, animals lacked rationality as well as moral code, philosopher  Thomas Aquinas o 1225-1274, animals lack soul; not in god’s image, animals are simply things or objects  Evolution & continuity between species o Tyson (1698) demonstrated anatomical similarities between human and ape o Linnaeus (1735) “Systema Natura”: humans are in primate order  Homo sapiens sapiens  Charles Darwin (1859) “Origin of Species”  Today, animal behaviorists & ethologist show no break between emotional & intellectual capacities of human & non-humans  Genetics show how closely relates some species are to humans  Philosophical/Theological justifications for divide o In medieval Europe, animals classified by Christian theology; some were more elevated than others o Ex. Carnivores like lions were on top of species that they hunted Lecture3:  “Mane Points” o Early scientific study of interrelationships o Ecological interrelationships: symbioses  Humans & Animals in ecosystem perspective o Post-Darwin view of evolutionary relationships among animals in ecosystems o Mid 1800s new term: ecology, symbioses o Ernest Haeckel coined term ecology  Ecology o Study of interactions of living things with each other and their physical environment  Biotic & abiotic factors  Symbiotic Relationships o Symbiosis: living together with another organism in close association o Types: commensPalism, mutualism, parasitism  Commensalism: one organism is benefited and the other is unharmed  Ex. Barnacles on whales, orchids on tropical trees  Mutualism: both organisms benefit from the association  Ex. Bees & flowers  Parasitism: the parasite benefits at the expense of the host  Ex. Tapeworm or heartworm (includes predation & Parasitism Commensalism Mutualism + Amensalism neutralism Commensalism 0 competition Amensalism parasitism - herbivory) Lecture 4:  “Mane Points” - 0 + o Cultural categories of animals – based on uses o Biological categories of animals – built into brains o Early human evolution & brain programming for animals  Biological categories of animals o Built into our brains through evolutionary process – attention and learning mechanisms  Brain specializations for attending to predators - venomous animals o Unconscious, fast, efficient, detection, & response o Primate visual system evolved to recognize & respond to venomous snakes 60 mya o Human brain specialization for animal detection  “Animate Monitoring” o Subjects are substantially faster & more accurate at detecting changes in animals relative to changes in all inanimate objects, even vehicles, which have been trained for years to monitor for sudden life-or-death changes in trajectory o Specialized brain mechanisms in humans: amygdala, caudate nucleus


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