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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaytlyn Notetaker on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1010 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Donna Jean Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see World History I in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Kaytlyn Carter Professor Leslie Haines English 1100 23 November 2015 The Jordan Family Butter Churn When I was little, my grandmother always kept a curious little mechanical cookie jar in the kitchen which never actually had cookies in it. This always astounded my 8 year old self so recently curiosity got the best of me and I finally asked my grandma why there were no cookies in the cookie jar. Apparently it isn’t a cookie jar at all; it was my great great grandmother Jordan’s Dazey butter churn from the early 1900’s. As I interviewed my grandma about this butter churn I previously knew nothing about, I learned that she actually remembered churning butter with it at her grandmother’s farm as a young girl (Armstrong, 2015). Her grandmother, Mary Jordan, lived on small farm outside of Prague, Oklahoma. Mary and her husband, Albert Jordan, sold their milk to a larger dairy company and a truck would come by the farm each day to collect the buckets of milk from their cows but Albert always saved a bucket or two to make cheese, butter and other dairy products. Whenever my grandmother would go over to visit, she was always excited about helping to make some of these products, especially butter. I asked how it was made so she informed me that whenever Albert would bring in the fresh milk from the cows, Mary would sit and wait for the milk to separate into cream and milk. Once it separated, Mary would skim the cream off of the top of the milk and put that into the butter churn and my grandmother would crank the churn until it turned into butter (Armstrong, 2015)! I was astonished by the fact that all she used was cream and where the cream came from, not even the fact that it was milk straight from a cow in the back yard. Nathan P. Dazey didn’t directly invent the butter churn but he did make it much better (Moore, 2013). In 1904, Dazey took over the company of E.B. Jones who created a glass jar churn that Dazey was immensely interested in but had better ideas about. Once he perfected his idea of a great butter churn and made new paddles based off of E.B. Jones’s original design, he applied for a patent on a “new and useful” churn in May 1906. This churn was square and featured a milk receptacle surrounded by a larger enclosure in which you would fill with cold or hot water depending on the weather and new and improved paddles but the larger water enclosure was discontinued at some point. Nathan’s son, Jack Dazey, moved the firm that Jones sold to Nathan Dazey to St.Louis, Missouri possibly for greater access to necessary castings or a more extended transportation system by rail and water. By 1910, Jack entered the firm and it grew colossally for he added various sizes of churns and by the time of World War I, Dazey was offering large electric churns as well as the handoperated models (Moore, 2013). Dazey Churn and Manufacturing Company was one of the most prolific makers of butter churns of its time and are easily identified by the Dazey name embossed on the jar and mechanics (Dazey, 2005). In the early 1920’s, Dazey declared that their factory was able to produce 2,000 butter churns per day. In 1915, Dazey claimed it had around 250,000 butter churns in use and by 1923 they boasted that they had two million satisfied customers which rose to three million in 1936 (Dazey, 2005). That is a lot of butter churns and I find it exceptionally intriguing that they were still selling into the great depression of the 1930’s. Through a quick google search about the population in America in the year 1923, the result was 111.9 million. Through a little math, that means almost two percent of homes in the United States in 1923 used the Dazey butter churn which may not seem like a lot but that’s only one type and brand of butter churns; that’s something to brag about. According to a renowned academic site, Shmoop, the 1920’s census revealed that for the first time in the United States, a majority of the population lived in citied and urban areas leaving only forty percent of the population on farms and in rural areas (Shmoop, 2008). Because of the nature of the butter churn and the fact that it needs fresh milk to be used, it is safe to say that a majority if not all of the owners of this machine lived on farms and in rural areas. This is part of the farming community’s culture for they are more selfsustaining; most farms had a milk cow for their own private consumption, hence, they had the butter churn out of necessity and convenience (Armstrong, 2015). A lot of times, farmers would make enough butter and other products to sell and barter in urban areas to make a little extra money to buy things they needed and couldn’t produce. Even today, the culture of churning your own butter and getting it from fresh natural sources like farms are becoming more and more popular as people become more health conscious and wearier of industry. Farmers still come into urban areas and set up farmers market in order to sell their fresh goods to the general public just like they did a hundred plus years ago (Armstrong, 2015). Now days, the majority of this country’s butter is mass produced by companies such as Land O’ Lakes. According to the Land O’ Lakes website, The Company began to form in the 1920’s with new ideals on making butter (Why, 2009). This Company was the foundation of the modern standardization of butter as well as the idea of being sold in wrappers and tubs. Land O’ Lakes does buy their milk from farmers and then they take that and manufacture their butter. They did stick to the integrity of the product by using two ingredients: cream and salt (depending on if you buy salted or nonsalted) with no additives or preservatives just like they did for centuries which shocked me when I was looking at the label. On their website they do admit to allowing the farmers to be free in the practices they choose to use which includes the method of genetically modifying organisms (Why, 2009). This is a huge debate and controversy in agriculture and society; if people knew this, they may turn away from using certain brands or products and lean towards producing their own or buying nonGMO products. My efforts to find how Land O’ Lakes butter was made failed; but, after much effort, I found a site that explained how butter is made commercially. The modern buttermaking process begins with the delivery of fresh milk from farms (Brennan, 2015). This milk is inspected unlike in the old days and then classified into different groups according to quality before it is filtered. The milk is then separated by centrifugal force and pumped into large cylindrical, vertical rotating devices that spins until the cream has been separated and rises to the top. The cream is then transferred to large stainless steel vats to heat and pasteurize the cream to eliminate bacteria. Once this cools, the cream is placed into a large mechanical churn that is usually made out of aluminum. These industrialsized churns can make up to 1,5005,000 pounds of butter at a time; this dwarfs the 4 quart or less handrotating Dazey churns. When the churn is triggered, it begins to tumble the cream much like a clothes dryer. As workers watch through small windows, the butter begins to form in small granules as the butter separates from the buttermilk. The buttermilk and butter are separated, salt is added to the butter, and it is churned further until it is what we know as butter, it is then removed from the machine and but into mobile machines called boats, packaged in huge blocks and sent to the distributor (Brennan, 2015). Obviously, there are some similarities and differences in how butter is made now and how it was made in the early 1900’s. Just like the old days, the milk is separated into cream, the cream is churned into butter and buttermilk is a byproduct. Now, milk is inspected and separated by quality, the milk is separated by machine into cream and the cream is pasteurized to kill bacteria, the cream is transferred into a massive churn that doesn’t use paddles like the Dazey churn but uses a clothes drying tumble technique instead, and finally once removing the buttermilk and tumbling the butter further, you have a literal boat load of butter. Through my research on the mechanical cookie jar turns butter churn, I was shocked to find how simple butter was made, how popular the Dazey churn was and how close yet different the process of making butter is now compared to when the Dazey churn was a hot commodity. It’s amazing how things have changed over time and both culturally and technologically. So now when I see my grandmothers butter churn, I can smile and appreciate the familial value of this technology and understand the significance of my family’s heritage in making butter. Works Cited Moore, Sam. "Dazey Butter Churn of St. Louis." Farm Collector. Ogden Publications, 1 Oct. 2013. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. Armstrong, Charlotte. "Grandmother's Interview." Personal interview. 24 Nov. 2015. "Dazey Glass Jar Butter Churns." Dairyantiques. Doug and Linda's Dairy Antiques, 2005. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. Shmoop Editorial Team. "The 1920s Summary & Analysis." Shmoop. Shmoop University, Inc., 11 Nov. 2008. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. "WHY LAND O'LAKES - Land O'Lakes, Inc." WHY LAND O'LAKES - Land O'Lakes, Inc. Land O'Lakes Inc., 2009. Web. 24 Nov. 2015. Brennan, Carol. "Butter and Margarine." How Butter and Margarine Is Made. Advameg Inc., 2015. Web. 24 Nov. 2015.
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