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General Psychology 1300

by: Laurel McFarland

General Psychology 1300 PSY 1300

Laurel McFarland

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Notes on the scientific method, different branches of psychology, professions having to do with psychology, and instructions on APA format.
General Psychology 1300
Kiyra A. Crooks
Class Notes
general, Psychology
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laurel McFarland on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1300 at Texas Tech University taught by Kiyra A. Crooks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see General Psychology 1300 in Psychology (PSYC) at Texas Tech University.

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Date Created: 09/09/16
Scientific methodology  Scientific method: system of gathering data so that bias and error in measurement are reduced  5 steps for scientific method 1. Perceive the question a. Derived from the coal of description 2. Form a hypothesis a. Derived from a description and explanation 3. Test the hypothesis a. Derived from explanation b. Observation, server, experiment 4. Draw conclusions a. Derived from prediction b. Statistical analyses used 5. Report your results a. Derived from control b. Replicability 1) Descriptive methods a) Naturalistic observation i) Watching animals or humans behavior in their normal environment ii) Major advantage (1) Realistic picture behavior b) Observer effect i) Tendency of people or animals to behave differently when they know they are being observed c) Participant observation i) A naturalistic observation in which the observer becomes a participant in the group being observed d) Observer bias i) Tendency of observers to see what they expect to see e) Blind observers: i) People who don’t know what the research question is Each naturalistic setting is unique – observations may not hold Laboratory observation 1. Watching humans or animals behave in a lab setting 2. Advantages a. Control over environment b. Allows use of specialized equipment 3. Disadvantages a. Artificial situation may result in artificial behavior Case study 1. Study of one individual in great detail 2. Advantage a. Tremendous amount of detail 3. Disadvantage a. Cannot apply to others Surveys a. Researchers ask a series of questions about the topic b. Given to a representative sample c. Advantages a. Data from large numbers of people b. Study covert behaviors d. Disadvantages a. Must ensure representative sample or results not meaningful b. Courtesy bias Correlation a. Measure of the relationship between 2 or more variables b. Formula with the 2+ variables a. Correlation coefficient (r) c. Correlation coefficient ®: a. Direction of relationship b. Strength of relationship d. Knowing the value of one variable allows prediction of the other e. Correlation coefficient ranges from -1.00 to +1.00 a. Closer to -1 or +1, the stronger the relationship b. No correlation: 0.00 c. Perfect correlation: -1 or +1 f. Positive correlation: variables are related in the same direction a. As on increases the other increases b. As one decreases the other decreases g. Negative correlation: variables are related in the opposite direction a. As one increases the other decreases h. CORRELATION DOES NOT PROVE CAUSATION Experiments a. A deliberate manipulation of a variable to see whether corresponding changes in behavior result b. Allows determination of cause and effect relationships c. Definition of a variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured d. Example – aggressive play: hitting, pushing, yelling e. Variables a. Independent variable i. The variable that is manipulated by the experimenter b. Dependent variable i. The variable that represents the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiments f. Groups a. Experimental group i. Subjects in experiment that are subjected to independent variable b. Control group i. Subjects in experiment that are not subjected to IV ii. May receive placebo treatment g. Random assignment a. Proves of assigning subjects to the experimental and control groups randomly b. Each subject has an equal chance of being in either group c. Controls for confounding variables h. Experimental hazards a. Placebo effect i. Phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants can influence their behavior b. Single blind study i. Subjects don’t know whether they’re in the experimental or control group c. Experimenter effect i. Tendency of experimenter’s expectations to unintentionally influence results of the study d. Double blind study i. Neither the experimenter nor subjects know which subjects are in the experimental or control group September 7 --- How to APA format Purdue owl APA on google Typed Double spaced 1” margins 12pt times new roman font a. Page header a. Shortened version of paper title i. Top of every page b. Page numbers i. Flush right c. Title of paper i. Flush left b. Paper sections a. Title page b. Abstract i. Not really needed for this class c. Main body d. References c. In text citations a. Quote i. According to jones (1998), “students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time” (p.199) b. Paraphrase i. Apa style is a difficult citation format for first time learners (jones 1998, p.199) d. Reference page a. Hanging indentations b. Alphabetical c. Typical form i. Author, A.A., Author, B.B, & Author, C.C. (year). Title of article. Title of journal, volume number(issue number), pages. e.


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