Lecture_2__3__and_4.pdf WOMS 210
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Udbluehen03 on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to WOMS 210 at University of Delaware taught by Professor Naccarelli in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Women and Religion in Women and Gender studies at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Class 2, 3 and 4 – 9/1/2016, 9/6/2016, and 9/8/2016 Prof. Jennifer Naccarelli, Founding Figures and Key Concepts, Mythological and the Historical Goddess, and The Rise of Patriarchal Religion Three Trends in Feminism leading to Women Studies and Religion - The right based language of liberal feminism o Gender equality o Demanding equal rights and access o For example, Ability to vote Education access Right to divorce Abortion access - Consciousness Raising Techniques of 1960s Feminism o Began in New York o Continuation of liberal feminism o Authenticity of an individual experience - Second Wave Cultural Feminism o Creates safe space for women o Rejects mainstream culture o Women gender studies is a product of culture feminism Mary Daly - The mother of modern feminist theology - Professor at Boston College for over 30yrs - PhD in religion at Saint Mary’s College - PhD in scared theology and philosophy at University of Fribourg, Switzerland - Some of her quotes o “It is the creative potential itself in human beings that is the image of God” o “Why indeed must “God” be a noun! Why not a verb – the most active and dynamic of all” Class 2, 3 and 4 – 9/1/2016, 9/6/2016, and 9/8/2016 Prof. Jennifer Naccarelli, Founding Figures and Key Concepts, Mythological and the Historical Goddess, and The Rise of Patriarchal Religion Mary Daly: Exodus Sermon - Example of the deep seated attitudes and political consequences. - The power of consciousness raising (the naming the duality of consciousness) - The limits of liberal feminism - The origins of women’s secondary status - The power of “god talk” and theology Duality of Consciousness - Internalizing a “false identity” - Dividing ourselves against ourselves Class 3 – 9/6/16 Theology - What is theology? o Study of God, of the divine o Philosophy of God o Exploring the nature of God - Seeks to answer questions such as o What is god? o What is the relationship between god and humanity? o How does humanity come to know a god? - Comes from the study of the sacred texts Class 2, 3 and 4 – 9/1/2016, 9/6/2016, and 9/8/2016 Prof. Jennifer Naccarelli, Founding Figures and Key Concepts, Mythological and the Historical Goddess, and The Rise of Patriarchal Religion Religion - A set of beliefs and practices emerging from various theological constructions o The tangible real life expression of beliefs concerning god. - It what you do - It is a community you share - A code of conducting yourself in the world Symbols and Religion - These lived experiences are most often communicated and perpetuated with the use of symbols - Clifford Geertz defines religion as o A system of symbols which act to produce powerful pervasive, and ling lasting moods and motivations For example, the cross in Christianity It communicates the idea that Jesus died for our sins Communicates hope o Geertz claims that symbols have both psychological and political effect What does this mean? They create inner conditions (deep seated attitudes) that lead people to feel comfortable with or to accept the social and political arrangements that correspond to the symbol system (Bagley 164). The Language of God - Who named god and how does naming communicate power? o God reveals himself to a prophet through vision or spoken words o The prophet communicates the message to the people through stories - The naming of what it means to be human, the naming of the cosmos, and the naming of god have all been done by men Class 2, 3 and 4 – 9/1/2016, 9/6/2016, and 9/8/2016 Prof. Jennifer Naccarelli, Founding Figures and Key Concepts, Mythological and the Historical Goddess, and The Rise of Patriarchal Religion Patriarchy - Our current hierarchical system - Of or relating to the manifestation and institutionalization of male dominance over women and children in a family and over women in society in general Dualism and Feminist Scholarship - Scholars such as Daly and Christ who base much of their analysis on Dualistic Constructions of reality in Judeo-Christian documents often assert that o The goddess traditions had linked the sacred with sexuality but Judaism and Christianity severed this link. o This connection between women and native appears to be the root cause of women’s secondary status between patriarchy Dualism - A way of defining and structuring the world in oppositional terms - A philosophical construction that is the foundation of hierarchical relationships - Some dualist constructions o Divinity Humanity o Good Evil o Light Darkness o Angel Satan o Male Female o Heaven Earth o Mind/intellect Body/Material o Sacred Profane o Strength Weakness o Self Other o Active Passive o Clean Unclean o Virgin Whore o Culture Nature Class 2, 3 and 4 – 9/1/2016, 9/6/2016, and 9/8/2016 Prof. Jennifer Naccarelli, Founding Figures and Key Concepts, Mythological and the Historical Goddess, and The Rise of Patriarchal Religion The Goddess - Can we prove the existence of Goddess centered religious traditions? - If so when why were they replaced with God cantered traditions? - How did this shift happen? - Why does it matter? Sources of Information Regarding the Goddess - In the absence of literary record what are the types of archaeological findings that suggest that sacredness of a female deity? o Paintings, figurines, headdresses containing cups oil and incense, buildings, status What takes place at a sacred site? - Rituals are held - Rituals are ways of contacting the divine - Myths are most often celebrated and reenacted via these rituals Class 4 – 9/8/12016 Myth - A sacred story that contains a symbolic truth and uses symbols and metaphors to pint to the truth which lies beyond the immediate environment Joseph Campbell on Myth - Founding father of mythology - Believed the religions of the world to be the various, culturally influenced “masks” of the same fundamental, transcendent truths Class 2, 3 and 4 – 9/1/2016, 9/6/2016, and 9/8/2016 Prof. Jennifer Naccarelli, Founding Figures and Key Concepts, Mythological and the Historical Goddess, and The Rise of Patriarchal Religion - “Truth is one, the sages speak of it by many names” The Social Function of Myth 1. Myths help to integrate members of a community into their proper roles 2. Myths help people handle crisis, it provides examples of how to handle adversity 3. Myths portray desirable and undesirable character traits Three Main types of Myths 1. Creation o These myths tell us where we came from and why we are here 2. Eschatological o These myths tell us where we are going. What happens after you die? 3. Alienation o These myths tell us how evil came into the world and how we can overcome it. They explain how and why we became separated from the divine. And why do humans have strained relations with one another? Goddess Centered Cultures - Carol Christ: why women need the Goddess? o Christ clams we need the goddess because “Religions centered on the worship of a male god create “moods” and “motivations” that keep women in a state of psychological dependence on men and male authority, while at the same time legitimating the political and social authority of fathers and sons in the institutions of society” Christ’s four beneficial aspects of reviving Goddess symbols - The Goddess as an affirmation of o Female power o The female body: Revaluation o The female body will: proximity to the divine Class 2, 3 and 4 – 9/1/2016, 9/6/2016, and 9/8/2016 Prof. Jennifer Naccarelli, Founding Figures and Key Concepts, Mythological and the Historical Goddess, and The Rise of Patriarchal Religion o Women’s bonds and heritage Gimbutas: The Goddess in Old Europe - One of the strongest cases for the existence of a well-developed culture - Gimbutas a gynocentric culture predominated from roughly 7000BCE to 2500BC - Gynocentric o “state of being centered on or in the female: a dominance or emphasis on feminine interests of point of view” o Gynocentrism is an ideological concept - During the Neolithic period 4500-2500BCE the Old European divinity most dramatically assumed various female forms Characteristics of Goddess Cultures - Polytheistic o Many different foci o Not worshipping a single divinity o In the polytheistic context female deities predominated only 2 to 3% of the figurines discovered on Old Europe were male - Figurines focus on women’s reproductive powers o Large hips, breasts and abdomen o Embody a female’s life giving characteristics: ability to sustain life through milk, ability to give birth out of their bodies, ability to loose blood without being harmed - Matrilineal o Children trace heritage through the mother’s line o Goods passed down through a mother because she always knew “her child as the product of her womb” The father’s participation in the production of a child was not always known o What is the evidence for this? Class 2, 3 and 4 – 9/1/2016, 9/6/2016, and 9/8/2016 Prof. Jennifer Naccarelli, Founding Figures and Key Concepts, Mythological and the Historical Goddess, and The Rise of Patriarchal Religion Archaeological sites Burial sites - Matrilocal o Married men leave their own family, tribe and society to join his wife’s family o Often matrilineal society were also matrilocal o There is evidence that these societies were peaceful because no weapons or fortifications were found near the remains o This is a partnership model of civilization o Are matrilineal/local societies also matriarchy Patriarchy/Matriarchy - Of or relating to the manifestation and institutionalization of male (or female) dominance over women (or men) and children in the family and over women (or men) in society in general Triple Form of the Goddess - Maiden o Contains in herself the power of reproduction. Her energy appears in the role of a warrior goddess. Later in Roman culture she acted independently from the authority of men - Mother o Creates and nourishes the world and its inhabitants. In the face of suffering the mother goddess can heal ailments and provide sustenance. Venerated for life giving capacities - Crone o She stored her power for wisdom. Able to regenerate life. She presided over death. A wise woman who gave laws and counsel Class 2, 3 and 4 – 9/1/2016, 9/6/2016, and 9/8/2016 Prof. Jennifer Naccarelli, Founding Figures and Key Concepts, Mythological and the Historical Goddess, and The Rise of Patriarchal Religion Varieties of Creation Myth 1. Creation by spontaneous generation - No coupling involved - Goddess had highest power 1. Virgin birth 2. Birth via a primal sea 2. Creation by Divine Pairing - Coupling involved - Roles of men were recognized 1. Reflects a physical reality 2. A loss of power for the goddess took place here 3. Creation by Activity of a Single Male God - No coupling involved - Goddess no longer needed 1. Bodily 2. Intellectual: Genesis
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