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Week 3-4 Notes

by: Brittany Temple

Week 3-4 Notes PS 1313

Brittany Temple
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About this Document

These notes cover some of what will be on our first midterm.
International Relations
Douglas Haugen
Class Notes
political science, international relations




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Temple on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PS 1313 at Mississippi State University taught by Douglas Haugen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see International Relations in Political Science at Mississippi State University.

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Date Created: 09/09/16
September 7, 2016 War introduced by Eisenhower 21 Century Armed Conflict Q: How to win war in a modern era? Planners have been at this since the Napoleonic Wars (1790s-1815) War- Before 1800s  War class (officers and soldiers)  Fought on a battlefield  Rules of combat Karl Von Clausewitz- On War War was not about most battleship, only about quantity of weapons, technology.  Gaining technological or strategic advantage over opponent.  The world was perched upon industrial revolution  SPECIALIZATION- control key  MANUFACTURING- (each individual corporation, to fine tune technology to make it a power)  CAPITAL INVESTMENT- international class of bankers/investors In the past, about farming and how they control their farms, a new population that were not a part of the bloodline were coming up, Hamilton said technology would be coming up. Had to be willing to connect to international bankers, that withhold the finance. For Clausewitz, war is economic- therefore, war is increasingly an extension of the political, and vice versa. War: treaties, diplomacy, economic negotiations Final Outcome: WAR to put leverage on the above things Nations Plan For War During Peace  International position- grand strategy (general plans for war, he has to have an outcome in mind to picture it at different levels)  War- military strategy  Battle – tactics (loose some battles but still win war) Modern War For Clausewitz,  In the modern world, private production was more integrated (between cities and soliders) than before  Roads and bridges were routes to manufacturing and supplies  All resources (public and private) would be targeted for destruction. Total War (anything can become war) To win a war you have to: Prepare- mobilize society (car plants were used to manufacture diff items, ex. Ford made military cars), convert private resources into military (places that made plows can make guns), target civilians. All private economy can be converted to military. US CIVIL WAR (1860- 1865)  War 4 years’ perpetual stand still  Slash and Burn (scorched earth policy)  Burning of Atlanta 1865 (final outcome) be willing to wipe out women and children What they started to realize that if you wanted to claim a person you have to demoralize a person you’re against to take on their culture, ideas, etc. The world was very confused on if they won this war, did they control their enemy! Total War (20 Century) Problem after ww2, the idea was coming out that total war might mean mutually assured destruction (MAD) to destroy one nation you might have to destroy their trade countries Nuclear Winter - Change the earth’s environment, kill off water and food supply Paradox of Power: Joseph Nye argues: US has more military, economic, cultural power than any power ever in history. But still cannot solve the world’s problem in terrorism, environment, human rights violations, poverty, and oppression. Weak Countries (groups) have advantages they never had before.  Modern media (internet) to get noticed  Attack small targets  Act through non-state actors According to this thinking, US needs to rely more upon soft powers to influence the world (LIBERAL)  Values  Cultures  Institutions The military alone will not get people to do what you want them to do, easier to encourage change than force change. Since total war is no longer an option. Purpose of Total War  To truly conquer a people (country)  Make them change their ways  They must be totally, utterly annihilated and demoralized Therefore; fighting a politically correct war. Mass killing of women and children and leveling citizens will bring true victory. Bargaining Terms (p. 108)  Resolve- the willingness of an actor to endure costs in order to acquire goods Ex. Is an actor willing to use the total war option?  Risk-return-trade-off- in crisis bargaining, the trade-off between trying to get a better deal and trying to avoid war. Note, a state cannot improve its bargaining conditions unless it embraces and demonstrates its willingness for war  Credibility – believability. A creditable threat that the recipient believes will be carried out. A credible commitment is one the recipient believes will be carried out. With crisis bargaining, as with poker, the question is whether someone is bluffing, credibility may require communication with humiliation.  Brinksmanship- a strategy in which adversaries take actions that increase the risk of accidental war, with the hope that the other will “blink” or lose its nerve, and make concessions. Much like the game of chicken. Ex. Playing chicken with MAD, the advantage may go the actor that appears “less ration” Willing to leave the situation to chance. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) In an attempt to make Kennedys threats to USSR more credible, he put missle….  Audience costs- negative repercussions for failing to follow through on a threat or to honor a commitment Ex if you have bluffed in the past, your threats are less credible.  Preventive war- a war fought with the intention of preventing an adversary from becoming stronger in the future. Ex: US invasion of Iraq (2003). September 9, 2016 Preemptive War: a war fought with the anticipation that an attack by the other side is imminent.  Example: Six Day War (1967) Israel launched a surprise attacked on 4 Arab neighbors. First Strike Advantages: the situation that arises when military technology or strategies advantage the side that attacks first.  Example: launching a missile to destroy opponent before they can respond Recap: Conflict Since the 1950’s  The proportion of global conflict has declined  Most wars have occurred in the global south.  The goal of war for territory has declined. (manufacturing is the power)  No wars have occurred among major powers. Types of Warfare  Asymmetric Warfare: a conflict between two populations of drastically different levels of military capability or size. Asymmetric conflicts often result in guerrilla (nails, etc) tactics being used to overcome the sometimes cast gasps in technology and force size.  Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of biological toxins or infections agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or in capitate humans, animals or plants  Chemical warfare involves the intentional use of chemicals in combat. poison gas as a chemical weapon was used during ww1, effective weapon. Resulted in millions of deaths.  Conventional warfare: is an attempt to reduce the enemy’s capability through open battle. It is a declared war between existing stats in which nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons are not used or only see deployment in support of conventional military goals and maneuvers.  Cyberwarfare: involves the actions by a nation-state or international organization to attack and attempt to damage another nation’s computers or information networks.  Globalizing war: refers to a form of war which extends beyond the national or regional boundaries of the immediate combats to have implications for the whole part. Globalizing war this includes world-war with the category tending to be restricted by convention.  Unconventional warfare: the opposite of conventional warfare, is an attempt to achieve military victory through acquiescence, capitulation, or clandestine support for one side of an existing conflict  War of aggression: is a war for conquest or gain rather than self-defense; this can be the basis of war crimes under customary international law. Chapter 5 International Institutions and war  In a well governed country, the police prevent and punish acts of violence between individuals. Where are the police in the international politics? Ex: the UN, different pressuring forces. They work through contracts, etc. There ARE. How is it different? Why is it so hard for the international community to prevent and punish acts of aggression? Active Aggression: going into a new territory to have a war. Why is it hard? People step aside a lot, and don’t want to violate someone’s sovereignty.  WHY? Realism: Behavior is a result of the STRUCTURE of the international system. The structure is ANARCHY The result: SECURITY DELIEMMA- nations are always building up arms and preparing to attack (preemptive)  WHY? Liberalism: Nations want to COOPERATE, trade, live in peace, prosper. However, without good institutions, cooperation is difficult. GOOD INSTITUTIONS provide, information, rules, road map for bargaining, seeing mutual benefits. World Peace- possible through world gov’t OTHER EXPLINATIONS: Military Industrial Complex: War can benefit the FEW more than the many War planning: secretive, select, group of planners REMOVED FROM DEMOCRATIC PROCESS IRON TRIANGLE- Congress- special interest- Bureaucracy What is the UN? United Nations:  Established (1945) – 51 members  Today- 193 members  Located- NYC  Purpose WORLD PEACE ALLIANCE SYSTEMS: Ch. 4 Domestic Politics and War Predictors of State Failures  Autocracies  Poverty  High infant mortality Other factors influencing in stability  Modernization produces rising expectations that gov’t cannot fill  Media images of outside world (available goods)  Relative gains and decline p. 144 Do political leaders spark wars abroad in order to hold power at home Yes, when kinds go to war and feel pressure Ex: Falkland War (1982)  Not valuable territory  2000 people- sheep farming  Britain was making steps to weaken it’s hold (1981) Domestic level:  The leaders of Argentina and Britain were unpopular  Argentina seized control of the Islands  Margret Thatcher acted decisively  Full scale military response Result she jumped to 51% in the polls and Argentina became more powerful Rally- Round-the-Flag-Effect: tendency for people to become supportive of their country’s gov’t in response to dramatic international events, such as war, to boost a certain president (influential person) to get a better/higher vote, etc. Why do people rally? People feel a greater sense of loyalty to the group when they experience conflict with outsiders. Diversionary Incentive the existence of the rally effect suggests opportunities for Politian’s to face a diversionary incentive: the incentive that state leaders have to start international crisis in order to rally public…. Political Costs of War Russo- Japanese War (1905)  Russia faced revolution at home  Zar assumed easy victory with Japan  Russia was humiliated and set course for another revolution US Battle Deaths and Public Support for war pg. 152  War supports drops in relation to # of deaths  Can become a political liability (cost) to politicians  Feeds into calculation of wag-the-dog Do countries fight war for military special interest? Military-industrial complex- an alliance between military leaders and the industries that benefit from the international conflict, such as arms and manufactures. Congress sends tax dollars to Defense dept. Defense dept. sends contracts to corporations Corporations send campaign contributions to congress US Domestic Decision-making The Constitution  Federal gov’t, not the individual states, will conduct foreign policy.  Individual U.S. states do not have sovereignty to conduct foreign policy  Article 1, Section 10, Tools of Foreign Policy Defense, alliances, diplomacy, foreign aid… Presidents have taken power away from congress by executive agreements st 21 Century Armed Conflicts How to win a war in the modern era? Planners have been at this since the Napoleonic wars (1790s-1815) War- BEFORE 1800S:  War class (officers and solidrs)  Fought on battlefield (specific time and place)  Rules of combat (guided by international law) 1648 Karl Von Clausewitz- On war Modern war:  German royal family  Fought in Napoleonic wars  Wrote on war (1832)  Most influential book ever on war On war (1832) Clausewitz noticed: War was about gaining technological or strategic advantage over opponent. The world was perched upon an industrial revolution Specializing Merchandizing


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