Theories of Personality Lecture 5
Theories of Personality Lecture 5 PSYC 3570
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kennedy Finister on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3570 at Auburn University taught by Elissa Hack in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Chapter 5 Lecture Notes September 6, 2016 The Psychoanalytic Approach: Neo-Freudian Theory, Application, and Assessment Chapter Outline o Limits and liabilities of Freudian theory o Alfred Adler o Carl Jung o Erik Erikson o Karen Horney o Application: Psychoanalytic theory and religion o Assessment: Personal narratives o Strengths and criticisms of Neo-Freudian theories Limits and Liabilities of Freudian Theory o Theorists rejected the idea that personality is formed by experiences in the initial years of life o Neo-Freudians argued that later experiences are important in shaping personality. § One of the main reasons they split off o Freud failed to recognize the importance of social and cultural forces in shaping individual personality o Freudian theories have negative tone and painted a pessimistic and in some ways degrading picture of human nature à everything is about repression o Propagated that humans are largely controlled by instincts and unconscious forces o Neo Freudians had a positive outlook. Focused more on the growth of the conscious Alfred Adler o First to break off and start psychoanalyst group o Developed the approach of individual psychology o Contributions to understanding of personality o Notion of striving for superiority § Every individual is driven by their strive to be better o Role of parental influence on personality development § Les responsibility on the individual and more on the parent o Effects of birth order Striving for Superiority o Single motivating force that can subsume all other motives o Individual’s begin life with feelings of inferiority § Dependent on parents for survival. § Our entire life is built around overcoming this complex • Lower the start the harder you’ll work Chapter 5 Lecture Notes September 6, 2016 o All individual actions aim to establish a sense of superiority over life’s obstacles o Excessive feelings of inferiority lead to inferiority complex o Social interest combined with superiority striving indicates mental health of a person Parental Influence on Personality Development o Parental behaviors that lead to problems in children’s life o Pampering § Robs the child of independence and adds to feelings of inferiority • Constantly hovering child • Difficulty to be independent à leads to indecisive adult o Neglect - Children who receive little attention from their parents: o Grow up cold and suspicious o Are incapable of warm personal relationships Birth Order • Firstborn children • Subjected to excessive attention from parents • Arrival of second child ends the pampering • Strong perception of inferiority • Middle-born children • Develop a strong superiority striving • Highest achievers • Try hard to catch up with their older siblings • Last-born children • Pampered throughout their childhood • Vulnerable to strong inferiority feelings ** failed to find support** Carl Jung o First president of the International Psychoanalytic Association o Disagreement with Freud’s theory, resulted in resignation from the association in 1914 o Established analytic psychology Collective Unconscious o Part of unconscious mind o Constitutes of thoughts, images, and psychic characteristics that are difficult to bring into awareness o Never repressed out of consciousness o People inherit unconscious psychic characteristics o Made up of primordial images Chapter 5 Lecture Notes September 6, 2016 § Referred as archetypes Archetypes o Anima - Feminine side of the male o Animus - Masculine side of the female o Anima and animus guide the selection of a romantic partner and the course of the subsequent relationship o Shadow - Negative side of personality o Located partly in both personal and collective unconscious Evidence for the Collective Unconscious o Does not consist of hard data from rigorous laboratory experiments o Is based on examination of mythology, cultural symbols, dreams, and the statements of schizophrenics o It is argued that collective unconscious is same for everyone Erik Erikson o Believed that ego is a relatively powerful, independent part of personality o Ego psychology - Erikson’s approach to personality o Principal function of the ego is to establish and maintain a sense of identity o Identity crisis - Confusion and despair we feel when we lack a strong sense of who we are Personality Development Throughout the Life Cycle o Erikson’s stages of personality development continue from infancy to old age o Crises - Turning points encountered by people in personality development o Provides two directions in which to proceed o How a person resolves a crisis determines the direction of his/her personality development Figure 5.1 - Erikson’s Eight Stages of Development Chapter 5 Lecture Notes September 6, 2016 Basic Trust Versus Mistrust o Child whose needs are met develops a sense of basic trust o Infants who never receive the loving care they need develops a sense of basic mistrust Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt o Autonomy - Allowing children to manipulate and control what they encounter o People with a sense of autonomy are confident o Over protection of children hinders development and lead to shame and doubt o Children become dependent on others Initiative Versus Guilt o Children who: o Organize and participate in social activities develop a sense of initiative o Lack initiative feel guilt and resignation Industry Versus Inferiority o Industry - Belief in one’s strengths and abilities o Develops when children experience success o Inferiority - Lack of appreciation for one’s talents and skills o Develops when children encounter failure Identity Versus Role Confusion Chapter 5 Lecture Notes September 6, 2016 o People with a sense of identity make decisions about personal values and religious questions o Failing to develop a strong sense of identity leads to role confusion Intimacy Versus Isolation Young people search for special relationship to develop intimacy and grow emotionally People who fail to develop intimacy face emotional isolation Generativity Versus Stagnation o Middle aged individuals develop a concern for guiding the next generation o Parents raise their children o Adults without children play an active role in raising nieces and nephews o Adults who fail to develop sense of generativity suffer from a sense of stagnation Ego Integrity Versus Despair o People who: o Look back on their lives with satisfaction develop a sense of integrity o Fail to develop a sense of integrity fall into despair and express contempt for others Karen Horney o Studied Freud’s work and taught psychoanalysis o Broke off because she disagreed with what he said about women. § She believed biology didn’t change personality it was the social constructs and environmental influences o Founded American Institute for Psychoanalysis o Important contributions o Neurosis and feminine psychology Neurosis o Neurotic - People who are trapped in a self-defeating interpersonal style o Trying to fight off insecurities o High strung 24/7 trying to make connections but due to anxiety they push people away, making them feel trapped. o Not enough love from parents as children manifests into neurosis & they will search the rest of life looking for what they missed out on o Prevents people from developing the social contact they unconsciously crave o Destructive interpersonal style is a defense mechanism to ward off feelings of anxiety o Arises due to disturbed interpersonal relationships during childhood o Lead to neurosis Chapter 5 Lecture Notes September 6, 2016 o Interaction styles adopted by neurotics to avoid anxiety-provoking experiences (defense mechanisms) o Moving toward people § Emphasizes own hopelessness, intense need for love/affection § Very attached, in chronic relationships. Cant be single § Demand love but don’t always give o Moving against people § Aggressive/violent behavior. § Manipulative in relationships § People are out to get things for themselves so they push others out before the person has the opportunity to do it first o Moving away from people § Tune out world. No need to force relations. Any attachment they had lead to pain so they rather be alone so it wont happen again Feminine Psychology o Introduced the concept of womb envy o Men envy women’s ability to bear and nurse children o Men compensate their inability to have children through achievement in other domains o In a society where men and women are free to become whatever they desire girls would not want to be boys, or vice versa Application: Psychoanalytic Theory and Religion o Freud’s perspective o Religious behavior represents a form of neurosis o Religion is a type of collective wish fulfilment o God is an unconscious father figure generated to provide feelings of security o Jung’s perspective o Religion provides sense of purpose and security § People across cultures inherit a God archetype in collective unconscious § People seek psychotherapy when religion fails to provide reassurance § Modern religions have developed practices to provide assurance • Confession, absolution, and forgiveness o Erich Fromm’s perspective o People turn to the powerful authority of church to escape a sense of powerlessness and loneliness o Authoritarian religions - People are under the control of a powerful God § Deny people their personal identity Chapter 5 Lecture Notes September 6, 2016 o Humanistic religions - God is a symbol of our own power § Provide an opportunity for personal growth Personality Assessment o Personal narratives: Narration of one’s own life story, that requires describing turning point scenes from one’s life o Interviews are recorded and transcribed o Judges code stories according to preset criteria o Scores tend to be consistent over time o Accuracy of the story and selective remembering of scenes by participants draws criticism o Generativity and life stories o Personal narratives are useful for studying Erik Erikson’s stages of personality development o Research indicates that number of stories reflecting generativity theme increased during the midlife decades o Stories from highly generative adults contain: § Increased themes about friendship, sharing, affiliation, and nurturance Strengths and Criticisms of Neo-Freudian Theories • Strengths • Elaboration of vital concepts ignored by Freud • Identification of social factors that influence the formation and change of personality • Optimistic and flattering picture of humankind • Introduction of new concepts like identity crises, introverts, and inferiority complexes • Criticisms • Neo-Freudian theories are supported with questionable evidence • Oversimplified or ignored important concepts