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PS 222, Week One Notes

by: Sarah Kincaid

PS 222, Week One Notes PS 222

Marketplace > Boston University > PS 222 > PS 222 Week One Notes
Sarah Kincaid
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About this Document

These notes cover the information covered in the first two lectures.
Psychology of Perception
Dr. Rucci
Class Notes
sense, perception, Evolutionary Thinking




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Kincaid on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PS 222 at Boston University taught by Dr. Rucci in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 98 views.

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Date Created: 09/09/16
1| Sensation & Perception: Intro, Aims, & Methods “Our reality is restricted by our senses and experiences.” – Intoy Theory and Modeling Experimental Validation Robotics Artificial Intelligence Psychology Neuroscience Computer Science Engineering Definitions Early vision – brain encodes light and patterns Higher order vision – encoding of complex stuff Segmentation – process of our visual system incorrectly putting objects together; occurs due to assumptions our brain makes Sensation – ability to detect a stimulus and convert the external info into internal signals Perception – process of assigning meaning to these signals **Sensation and perception may be used interchangeably in lecture Vision – array of points of light intensity that we form into images Fovea – the part of the eye that gives us high resolution/detail due to high density of cones; outside of the fovea, our vision is very blurry Saccades – rapid eye movements Fixation – pauses in saccades Optic nerve – fed by the blood vessels; aka the blindspot Empiricism – our perception of the world is learned Nativism – our perception of the world is innate Blindsight – seeing without knowing it (e.g. blind guy positioning body to avoid obstacles) Notes The problem of sensory perception is… How?! How are we able to convert different intensities hitting retina receptors into an image of the world? Five things we know about this process 1. It is very complex 2. The output produced, our percept, is dramatically different from the input, the retinal image 3. most of it works without us knowing 4. It’s altered by our previous experience 5. Requires a lot of knowledge “What men call ‘learning’ is really ‘recollection’” – Plato “Learning is the association of ideas based on contiguity, similarity, and contrast” – Aristotle Early philosophy of perception Plato and “The Allegory of the Cave” (basically “The Matrix”) Evolution Your perception and sense of reality are the products of evolution 1. Sensory systems = survival advantage ∴ the senses developed depend on the importance of the energy type in the environment 2. Human senses are limited to certain kinds of energy in the environment (e.g. visible light) ∴ humans have a limited sense of reality Some species can sense energies humans cannot - Bees see ultraviolet (UV) light, which makes the center of flowers look like a landing strip. - Rattlesnakes see infrared light, which helps them find warmth. - The praying mantis senses high frequency vibrations. - Duck-billed platypus and many other fish sense electric fields. - Dogs have a very different perception of the world due to their strong sense of smell. Fun Facts  Humans find it hard to perceive separate objects (hence, segmentation).  Our eyes move more than we think they do (saccades).  We live 1/3 of our lives blind. During the saccades with brief fixation, we do not see any images for ~300 milliseconds after which we form a clear image. This is a problem with our perception.  Our visual awareness is limited – we see less than we think we do.


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