PSY100: week 2 class notes 9/8/16
PSY100: week 2 class notes 9/8/16 PSY 100
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lorren Roberts on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100 at Central Michigan University taught by Mark A Deskovitz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Chapter 2: Neuroscience and behavior The Neuron Neuron main (specialized) cells in the brain used to transmit information through the nervous system o Sensory neurons communicate information from the environment to the nervous system o Motor neurons communicate information from the nervous system to the muscles o Interneurons communicate information from one neuron to another Characteristic of the neuron (3 basic components) 1. Cell body (soma) provides energy the neuron needs to function through structures that make proteins and process nutrients Contains the nucleus 2. Dendrites receive messages from other neurons through lots of short fibers that extend from the cell body 3. Axon a tube that connects and carries information from the cell body to other cells in the body (other neurons, glands, muscles) Myelin sheath insulates axon and increases communication speed Nodes of Ranvier gaps in the myelin sheath Communication within the neuron o Dendrites and cell body gather messages which are then transmitted through the axon in the form of a brief electrical impulse (action potential) Communication between neurons o Synapse point of communication between 2 neurons o Synaptic transmission one neuron releases neurotransmitters, they travel through the synaptic gap and transfer to adjoining neurons o Synaptic gap small fluid filled space between the presynaptic neuron and the postsynaptic neuron Presynaptic neuron message sending neuron Postsynaptic neuron message receiving neuron Excitatory and inhibitory messages o Excitatory messages increase the chance that postsynaptic neurons will activate and generate action potential o Inhibitory messages decrease the chance that postsynaptic neurons will activate Neurotransmitters chemical messengers made by a neuron o Acetylcholine primary roles include learning, memory, and muscle contractions An associated disorder is Alzheimer’s disease o Dopamine primary roles include movement, thought process, and rewarding sensations Associated disorders include Parkinson’s disease, Schizophrenia, and drug addiction o Serotonin primary roles include emotional states, sleep, and sensory perception An associated disorder is depression o Norepinephrine primary roles include physical arousal, learning, memory, and regulation of sleep Associated disorders include depression and stress o GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) communicates an inhibitory message Associated with anxiety disorders Endorphins regulate pain perceptions o Release in response to stress or trauma to reduce the perception of pain How drugs affect synaptic transmission o Drugs can: Interfere with the normal functioning of neurotransmitters Increase or decrease the amount of neurotransmitters released Block the reuptake of the neurotransmitters Mimic specific neurotransmitters Block the effects of neurotransmitters Tour of the brain Studying the developing brain (structure as it relates to function) o Neuroplasticity/plasticity the brains ability to change function and structure (other parts of the brain makeup for what was lost when brain injury occurs) Functional plasticity the brains ability to change functions from damaged to undamaged brain areas Structural plasticity brains ability to change its structure in response to learning, active practice, or environmental stimulation o Forming different connections with other cells Neurogenesis the development of new neurons Brainstem the base of the brain that includes the structures of the hindbrain and midbrain (primitive brain structure impacts critical things) o Hindbrain connects the spinal cord with the rest of the brain Made up of 3 structures 1. Medulla controls vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, and a number of reflexes 2. Pons contains centers that regulate breathing and transfers information from other regions of the brain to the cerebellum 3. Cerebellum controls functions of balance, muscle tone, coordinated muscle movements, and is involved with learning of movements and motor skills o Midbrain involved with the process of auditory and visual sensory information, and processing visual information Substantia nigra part of the midbrain involved in motor control and contains a large amount of dopamine producing neurons
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