Reading and Lecture Notes for Week 1
Reading and Lecture Notes for Week 1 HIST 125
Popular in World History Since 1500
Popular in History
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Pagel on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 125 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Louisa Rice in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see World History Since 1500 in History at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Bolded Items are from Lecture, all others are notes taken from the reading. 15 Century Recuperation (Reading and Lecture for 9/8/16) **Key Terms/Points Black Death Zheng He Great Wall Ottoman Turks Istanbul -Black Death spread across Afroeurasia quickly, a reminder of the global networks before 1500. -1500 marks a major shift in global power; the Ming and Ottoman Empires dominated the world. *The Black Death -Vectors: trade, military conquest, and religion -Trade and Military Conquest: Plague carried by fleas on rats on trading ships by the Mongols. Mongols would even throw infected bodies into cities in order to infect its population. -Religion: The Plague spread to Mecca, the Muslim holy land, killing Muslims on their pilgrimages. ~The Jews were blamed for the Plague because they were rumored to be “poisoning the wells.” As a result, many attacks on Jews occurred. ~Many others thought this was the end of the world. *After the Black Death -Even though long-distance trade slowed down after the Black Death, the demand for luxury goods and exotic materials increased due to survivors demanding higher incomes. -Smaller cities that survived the Black Death were made storehouses for wealth, knowledge, and skill. -Many cities emerged as new capitals, especially after new technology was presented. *New Technologies -Technologies for moving goods and people remained virtually the same from 1300-1500. -Medical scholars did not learn much about infectious diseases from the Black Death, but did gain a new understanding of how the mechanics of contagion worked. Bolded Items are from Lecture, all others are notes taken from the reading. -Two major technological innovations at the time were the advancement of firearms, especially guns, and the progression of printing technology. *Guns -China’s recipe for gunpowder was diffused during the Mongol era (13 century) where it eventually traveled to Europe. -By the end of the 14 century, guns were being used on the battlefields of Europe. -Canons were developed a bit later by monarchs who were wealthy enough to fund these developments. th -However, until the 16 century, archers were preferred in battle for their reloading speed and accuracy. *Printing -Printing began in China and was done by brushing ink onto carved wooden blocks and stamping them onto paper. ~After relative success with this technique, some proposed printed paper money in China. It was an unpopular idea. -The idea of printing traveled to Europe where it became popular and advanced. -European artisans soon moved from wooden blocks to movable type with metal letters, which retained shape longer. -Even after the Chinese became aware of the method of printable type, they still used scribes or blocks to print documents. ~While the Latin alphabet has roughly 26 letters (give or take a few for special characters), the Chinese alphabet has thousands of characters that would make printable type too complicated. -Printing technology was essential in translating things such as the Bible into other languages. *Why China? /History Overview -Early technological advances; the earliest printed book comes out of China as well as gunpowder and canons. -Nomads and other non-Chinese posed a threat to China. -Ming China (1368-1644) was born out of the Black Death and issues surrounding that. -Qing China (1644-1911); ended by the nationalist movement. Bolded Items are from Lecture, all others are notes taken from the reading. -Sinocentrism- the belief that China is the center of everything, the “Middle Kingdom,” and closest to heaven. Everyone else is a “barbarian.” *Ming China (1368-1644) -1368: Rebel leader Zhu Yuanzhang drives out the Mongols and establishes the Ming Dynasty (Dynasty of Light), ruling under the name, Taizu. -Taizu lowered taxes on farmers and raised them for the rich. -Taizu also created laws preventing people from moving from villages to cities and from changing occupations. -Taizu encouraged conforming to Neo-Confucian morality, which restricted the4 rights of women. -Along with enabling economic growth, Taizu enjoyed broad support because: 1.) He improved state bureaucracy efficiency. 2.) He raised living conditions for millions of peasants. *Ming Trading and the Great Wall -Trading between the Ming Dynasty and foreign states meant that the foreign states were not considered trading partners, but tributary payers. ~Other rulers would pay material gifts just for the glory of trading with Imperial China. ~These were typically around neighboring countries such as Korea and Japan. China never tried to conquer deeply into Inner Eurasia. -However, because of past relations, the Chinese feared the return of the Mongols, and so stationed 3 million soldiers along the northwestern border of China. -1449: Despite these numbers, the Mongol cavalry defeated China. Humiliated, and to prevent from further attacks, the 1500 mile-long Great Wall was built. -Guard towers at close intervals allowed distress signals to travel more quickly. *Zheng He -Muslim eunuch. ~Some men were castrated so that they would remain loyal to the Emperor; if they do not have children, they cannot possibly overthrow the emperor thinking that their children might rule. Bolded Items are from Lecture, all others are notes taken from the reading. -Zheng He was an elite Chinese naval officer. ~He was given the task by Emperor Yongle (Taizu’s son/successor) to show the rest of the world China’s imperial wealth and glory. -Zheng He assembled a fleet of 287 ships- 62 large “treasure ships” and 225 smaller ones, carrying over 27,000 crewmembers. -Zheng He commanded 7 major westward expeditions between 1405 and 1433. -Members of the crew included criminals, soldiers, doctors, herbalists, astrologers, diplomats, and Arabic and Persian translators. -They navigated with compasses, star charts, coastline maps, and advice from Muslim mariners. -The main goal of the expeditions was to expand Chinese influence over the rest of Afroeurasia. He seized no ports nor founded any imperial colonies. -After Emperor Yongle died in 1424, opposition to Zheng He grew because scholar-bureaucrats saw him as a political opportunist along with the fact that the voyages were costing way too much money that could been spent on defenses or prevention deforestation in southern China. -Zheng He died on a final expedition in 1433. The ships were dismantled following his death. *India -India experienced a dramatic population decline during and after the time of the Black Death. This is mostly due to other epidemics and regional famines, not the Plague. -Despite this, Muslim Turkic military lords still fought for territory and resources. -Islam became the dominant faith in upper and central India, so much so that clerics and preachers fanned out to converts Hindu villagers. -The Southern part of India became more politically consolidated and remained largely Hindu. -1340s: A band of warriors founded the Vijayanagar monarchy in south central India. ~This Hindu kingdom conquered and put other southern states under tribute payments while recruiting Muslims from the north and using gunpowder against their enemies. -The Vijayanagar kingdom enjoyed prosperity due to lush rice-growing valleys and the circulation of gold and silver coins. ~From this, the Hindu elite built large temples. -Vijayanagar continued to rule southern India until the mid-1500s. Bolded Items are from Lecture, all others are notes taken from the reading. *The Timurids -After the death of the conqueror Timur, the margins of his enormous empire broke apart, however the central part of the empire (today Uzbekistan and Herat) was kept together by his children. ~They did this by paying more attention to knowledge and literature rather than military glory, and as a result, Samarkand (the kingdom’s central city) became the center of art and intellect for the empire. -Mosques and palaces were already being built and advanced colleges were built along with them. ~As the advanced college grew and flourished, its curriculum grew from law and religious studies to mathematics, astronomy, history, and several other subjects. -Timurid scholars made important advances in algebra, trigonometry, and astronomy. They also produced a comprehensive star catalog in the form of astronomical tables. It was the most advanced map of the stars up to that point in history. -Herat became the center of art and design center, encouraging the intellectuals’ painting and calligraphy talents. *The Ottoman Turkish State -Before the House of Osman (The Ottomans) took over, Anatolia (modern Turkey) was politically fragmented with territories belonging to Mongols, the Greeks, and the Christian Byzantine monarchy. -The Turkish state was founded by Osman but his successors, Orkhan and Murad, defeated rivaling and neighboring states, raiding them and occupying them and thus, growing the empire. -Despite the frequent pillaging, the success in the empire laid with the sultan’s negotiating skills with local chiefs. -Ghaza- a code of military honor associated with accumulating plunder. “Ghazi” refers to the soldier. ~This was the basis for the organization of the war orders. -Many aristocratic Greek Christians with their knights joined the Turkish army. -To build their ranks, the Turks would take healthy boys (every 3-11 years) from Christian families in the Balkans. These boys were called janissaries and were legal slaves of the sultan. ~The boys had to convert to Islam and undergo rigorous training for military or administrative posts. Bolded Items are from Lecture, all others are notes taken from the reading. *The Capture of Constantinople -The Ottoman Empire absorbed many Greek-ruled territories in its first century but could not capture Constantinople. -1453: Sultan Mehmed II, the Conqueror breaches the city walls and captured the city. He let his troops plunder it for three days. -Afterwards, Mehmed II and the Turks set to rebuild the city as the Ottoman capitol. -The Ottoman Empire would last for the next 450 years. *Recovery in Europe -Many cities showed new life because of higher demands for services, labor, and imported goods. -The banking system was rejuvenated with Florence emerging as the leading financial hub due to rich firms, including the Medici family, building up rich banking empires. ~Other wealthy cities included London, Cologne, Venice, Paris, and Bruges. -Women were allowed more freedom and the ability to work due to post-Plague labor shortages. ~They engaged as spinners, weavers, teachers, and spiritual guides. -Religious views turned to personal appreciations of Jesus, God, and the Virgin Mary. *Royal Power Five major polities arrived in the 1300s to rule the European peninsula: Naples to the south, the Roman Papal States, Milan in the north, Florence, and Venice. -Royal power was consolidated within England, France, Spain, and Portugal. ~Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand Aragon supplemented their kingdoms by marrying. -England was the only place that share power between the head of state and a representative body. ~The Parliamentary House of Commons forced the monarch to get their approval before imposing taxes. -The Poland-Lithuania monarchy was Europe’s largest (territorially) after the Queen Jadwiga of Poland married Lithuania’s Grand Duke. Bolded Items are from Lecture, all others are notes taken from the reading. *The Italian Renaissance -Beginning in 1300, in the aftermath of the Black Death, Florence, Italy shone as a beacon of cultural genius in Europe. -Regardless of its population loss caused by the Plague, Florence still had enough wealth and cultural refinement for incredible artistic and literary projects. ~The wealth and refinement came from the many rich patrons that inhabited the city, including the Medici family. -Rich aristocrats competed to spend money on art and buildings, hoping it would further build the reputation of their family. -Artists, writers, and scientists all flocked to this area to share their creations and take part in the wealth. *Humanism -Humanism is a movement born out of the Italian Renaissance and focused on rediscovering, reinterpreting, and investigating ancient Greek and Roman civilization and thinking independently about one’s identity. -Humanists believed anyone wishing to study the ancient world would need to study the “humanistic” disciplines of grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy, and history. -Three of the most important pioneers came from Tuscany: Dante Alighieri (poet), Petrarch (poet), and Boccaccio (classical scholar). -Humanistic ideas: ~Greek and Roman achievements were a good reference point for thought and behavior. ~Human beings had responsibilities to better themselves, especially through religious work. ~Public service is a moral obligation. -Art depicted by the likes of Michelangelo, Donatello, and Da Vinci included religious, secular, and even mythical themes. -Architects like Filippo Brunelleschi created monumental structures like churches, including the Duomo of the Cathedral of Florence. -Humanist ideologies restricted the role of women inside mostly inside the home, but a few achieved artistic success. Bolded Items are from Lecture, all others are notes taken from the reading. *The Renaissance beyond Italy -As the Italian Renaissance spread to other areas of Europe, so did printing technology. The first things to be put out were Bibles and religious materials but soon literate Europeans were demanding stories and poetry. ~50 years after the invention of movable type, 6-15 million books had been turned out and most of them not in Latin. -The Ottomans were also enthusiastic about the Renaissance, frequently visiting Florence for books and art. *Main Points of the Reading/Conclusion -Physicians were woefully unclear as to what caused infectious disease. They also blamed it on the Jews. -Advancement of technology- weaponry and printing. -Repopulation after the Plague. -Smaller towns survive to become wealthier. -Rise of the Ming Dynasty. -Cities could not thrive without wealthy patrons. -Women were allowed to work/take up positions in the church. -Humanism (individualism) is introduced. -Isabella and Ferdinand create their empire. -Rise of the Ottomans/the capture of Constantinople. -1/3 of the world population lived in China. -The building of the Great Wall after the Mongol humiliation.
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