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Nutrition 2020 Notes Week 2

by: Camille Muir

Nutrition 2020 Notes Week 2 NFS 2020

Marketplace > Southern Utah University > NFS 2020 > Nutrition 2020 Notes Week 2
Camille Muir
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

More on infertility, specifically diet, weight, and body fat as well as diabetes. Notes taken on Dr. Shmidt's lecture and his slides.
Nutrition in the Life Cycle
Matthew Schmidt
Class Notes
infertility, diet, weight, body fat, Diabetes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camille Muir on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NFS 2020 at Southern Utah University taught by Matthew Schmidt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Key for all my notes: YELLOW= Important to know GREEN= Important terms RED= Important numbers Week 2 Notes for Tuesday September 6    : Slide 17 Alcohol  Preconception and pregnancy suggestion for alcohol intake is 0.  Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to o Absence of menstrual cycle o Failure to ovulate Slide 18 Dietary constituents and ovulatory infertility  One of the biggest reasons for infertility is weight  Trans fat increases the risk of infertility (causes inflammation and free radicals that attack PUFAs (sperm and egg)  Exercise  o Can delay in menarche (first time), abnormal cycles (% body fat effects menstrual cycles and fertility) Iron deficiency increases the risk of infertility o Women who consume iron supplements have reduced risk of infertility o Most women have an iron deficiency o Anemia is a disease caused by an iron deficiency o Best sources of iron  Organ meat (Liver, Kidney, Spleen) (Not recommended during  pregnancy)  Red meat (Beef, Steak)  Other meats (Fish)  Legumes (most bioavailable (has the most available to us, not necessarily  the most in it)) (Vitamins and minerals in meats and meat bi­products are  always more available to us than plant sources)  Leafy green vegetables  Cereal  Cook with cast iron skillet (dutch oven) Slide 22 Under­nutrition  Cut calories by 50%, starvation; possible loss of mensturation   Weight loss of 10­15% decreases estrogen levels  If you are underweight and start to gain­ you are mostly gaining organ size, muscle, etc)  Chronic undernutrition  o Primary effect­ the body finds a way. Birth of small and frail infants as a result  (body finds a way) Slide 23 Underweight  Weight gains is recommended first­line treatment from amenorrhea (lack of menstrual  cycle) related to low body weight.  Slide 24 Body Fat  Moving box fat cells analogy: Pack the cells with fat, the “boxes” break. When the fat  cell becomes damaged, we stuff the fat in between liver cells, heart cells, etc, creating  problems. The remedy is “unpacking” the fat cells.   High body fat can increase infertility because it:  Alters hormones o Estrogen o Leptin (hormone made by fat cells) (Leptin tells you that you’re full) (effects  quality of your eggs) (obese people have too much) (may contribute to  anovulation) o Insulin (increases androgen hormones) (In females, when you have high levels, it  creates more testosterone)  Obesity increases (34%) (In females) o Inflammation (body’s way of protecting broken down tissue) o Oxidative stress (Not enough antioxidants to “take care” of free radicals (Long  term)) (Linked to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, cancer, Alzheimer’s,  Parkinson’s) (What creates free radicals? Breathing, smoking, alcohol, exercise,  excess simple sugar, excess fat, pregnancy) o Irregular menstrual cycles o The incidence of metabolic syndrome (Series of symptoms: (1 step away from  type 2 diabetes) high insulin levels, excess fat in the waistline, high blood  pressure Slide 30 Infertility in Males  Oxidative Stress  Antioxidant status  Metabolic syndrome  Age (> 40 years) o Effects semen and increased free radical production  Excess weight  Vitamin D status  Heavy metal exposure (lead, mercury, (from China)) Antioxidants: Antioxidants are like the soldiers fortifying a military base.  Vitamin C  Zinc (not enough associated with decreased semen volume and testosterone levels  Vitamin E  Selenium  Carotenoids (Vitamin A) th Notes for Thursday September 8    : Factors contributing to male infertility:  Smoking  o Effects of semen o Childhood cancers are thought to higher in children born to parents  who smoke  Isoflavones o Animal studies show high intakes (soy) linked to infertility  Undernutrition o Weight loss in males decreases fertility o Weight loss over 25% of normal weight stops sperm production  Slide 32 Diabetes  Diabetes a leading cause of kidney failure, amputation, heart failure  High blood glucose levels in the first 2 months are teratogenic(harmful to  the fetus), and are associated with abnormalities in newborn.   Type 2 is related to abdomen obesity  Type 1 is genetic (beta cells (pancreas) don’t have the marker so white blood cells attack (autoimmune disease) and destroy it)  Type 2 insulin binds to the receptor, door is opened glucose gets in o Type 2 theories  Insulin receptors are damaged  Less protein doors are opened on the cell membrane that allow  glucose in  When glucose lingers in the blood stream, the pancreas releases more  insulin, long term, causes problems.  o Soluable fiber helps regulate blood glucose Diabetes Treatment Slide 35  Treatment helping Type 1, Type 2, Pregnant Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin resistance, excess insulin, PCOS  o Weight loss o Percent of total calories from energy nutrients:  15­20% protein  Less than 30% fat  About 50% carbohydrates o Probiotics – takes fiber and makes a byproduct (short change fatty  acids) that can alter how glucose is regulated  Living bacteria  A lot of them (millions and billions)  Healthy bacteria (with health benefit) o Lower Fat  Less than 7% saturated  Low as possible transfat  200 mg of cholesterol or lower o Carbohydrates:  High fiber­ (especially soluable (apples, oatmeal, fruits have  more, artichokes)  Whole grains Carb meal breakdown   Take the total calories  Divide in half (for half calories need to be carbs)  Divide that number by 4 (4 calories to every gram to find grams)  That number is how many grams of carbs they need.   Divide by 5 (three meals, two snacks)  No more than 25 difference in grams in snacks and meals. Meals should be  higher, but no more than by 25. 


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