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Anatomy and Physiology 1

by: Marisol Huerta

Anatomy and Physiology 1 Biol 2301

Marketplace > University of North Texas > Biology > Biol 2301 > Anatomy and Physiology 1
Marisol Huerta
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These notes are over chapter 1 of A&P. The notes consist of powerpoint slides material and also the book. There is pictures to help you better understand.
Anatomy & Physiology 1
Class Notes
Biology, anatomy, Physiology




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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marisol Huerta on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2301 at University of North Texas taught by Kasparian in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology 1 in Biology at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation 1.1 Form and Function of Anatomy and Physiology      Anatomy: studies the structure of the body parts and their relationship to one another.  o Anatomy has many subdivisions. o Gross or Macroscopic Anatomy: study of large visible structures.  Can be approached in many different ways.  Regional Anatomy: looks at all the structures in a particular area of the body.   System Anatomy: looks at just one system.   Surface Anatomy: looks at the internal structures as they relate to overlying skin.  o    Microscopic Anatomy: deals with the structures too small to be seen with the naked eye.       Cytology: study of cells       Histology: study of tissues   o    Developmental Anatomy: studies the anatomical and physiological development throughout life.       Embryology: study of developments before birth.     Physiology: studies the function of the body parts; how they work o Physiology is explainable only in terms of the underlying anatomy.  o Subdivisions of physiology are based on organ systems.  o Subdivisions mostly focuses on molecular and cellular levels of the body.   Body’s ability depends on their individual cells and the cells depend on the chemical reactions.      Principle of complementarity of structure and function: structure and functions correlate.  o Function depends on the structure. o The function always reflects the structure.  1.2 They Body’s Organization Ranges from Atoms to the Entire Organism   Human body has many levels of structural organization.   Simplest level­­­­Chemical Level: atoms, molecules, and organelles.  o Atoms: building blocks of matter  o Molecules: associate in specific ways to form organelles o  Organelles: basic component of the microscopic cells  Cellular Level: single cell­­­­simplest in living creatures o Cells are the smallest units of living things o Cells have common functions o Individual cells vary in size and shape     Tissue Level: group of similar cells that have a common function   o    4 basic tissue types:       Epithelium: covers the body surface and lines its cavities.       Connective Tissue: supports and protects body organs       Muscle: provides movement       Nervous Tissue: rapid internal communication  o Each tissue type has a characteristic role in the body  o Organs are composed of at least 2 tissue types that perform a specific function for the body  o Each organ of the body has a specialized functional center that is responsible for a certain activity  Organ Level: contains 2 or more types of tissue o Extremely complex  Organ System Level: organs that work closely together  o They work together to create the organ system  o Integumentary  o Skeletal  o Muscular o Nervous o Endocrine o Lymphatic  o Respiratory  o Digestive  Organelle Atoms Molecule Smooth muscle cell Chemical level Cellular level Atoms combine to form Cells are made up of molecules. molecules. Smooth muscle tissue Cardiovascular Tissue level system Tissues consist of similar types Heart of cells. Blood vessels Blood vessel (organ) Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Epithelial tissue Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. Organismal level Organ system level The human organism is made Organ systems consist of different up of many organ systems. organs that work together closely. o Urinary  o Reproductive   Organismal Level: all organ systems combined to make the whole organism o Representing the sum total of all structural levels 1.3 What are the Requirements for Life?  Necessary Life Functions      Maintaining Boundaries o Internal environment remains distinct from the external environment  o In single celled organisms­­­­ limiting membrane  o All cells are surrounded by a semi permeable membrane  o Skin is separating our insides from the external environment  o Skin also protects internal organs      Movement: includes the muscular system  o Muscular system allows movement  o Skeletal system provides framework  o Contractility: movement of muscle on cellular level   Responsiveness/ Excitability: ability to sense changes in the environment then respond to them  o Nerve cells communicate rapidly with one another  o Nervous system is mostly involved with responsiveness   Digestion: breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood o Digestive system performs this function for the entire body  Metabolism: chemical reactions that occur with body cells  o Breaks down substances into simpler building blocks o Synthesizes more complex cellular structures from simpler substances  o Uses nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP  o Depends on the digestive and respiratory systems to make nutrients and oxygen available to the blood.  o Regulated by hormones secreted by the endocrine system glands.   Excretion: process of removing wastes from the body  o Several organ systems participate in excretion   Reproduction: occurs at the cellular and organismal level.  o Involves division of cells for growth or repair  o Sperm + egg= fertilized egg  o Mainly responsible for producing offspring  o Female’s reproductive structures provide the site for fertilization   Growth: an increase in size of a body part or of the organism.  o Accomplished by increasing the number of cells.  o True growth­­­­ constructive activities occur at a faster rate than destructive ones.  Survival Needs  Ultimate goal of all body systems is to maintain life      Nutrients: taken via your diet  o Contains the chemical substances used for energy and cell building  o Carbohydrates­­­­major source of energy  o Proteins­­­­needed for cell building and cell chemistry   Essential for building cell structures  o Fats­­­­provide a reserve of energy­rich fuel      Oxygen o Essential for release of energy from tools      Water o Most abundant chemical in our body  o Provides water environment necessary for chemical reactions o Fluid base for secretions and excretions      Normal Body Temperature o Must be maintained   o If body temperatures drops the slower the metabolic rates become  o Activity of muscular systems generate most body heat   Appropriate Atmospheric Pressure: force that air exerts on the surface of the body.  o Breathing and gas exchange depend on this   Survival factors must be present in the proper amount.  1.4 Homeostasis is Maintained by Negative Feedback      Homeostasis: the maintenance of relatively stable internal conditions despite continuous changes in the  environment.  o Allow body to be balanced and can be adjusted when needed.  o Every organ system plays a role in maintain an adequate internal environment  Communication is accomplished by the nervous and endocrine systems  Body must constantly be monitored and regulated to maintain homeostasis.   Variables are factors that can change.   Homeostatic control of variables involves 3 components:   o Receptor: some type of sensor that monitors the environment (stimuli)  o Control Center: determines the set point­­­range in which variables must be maintained Figure1.4Interactions amongtheelements of ahomeostatic control systemmaintainstableinternal conditions.6  Provides the means to respond   Negative or positive feedback  3 Input: Information 4 Output: Information sentalongafferent Control sentalong efferent pathway to control Center pathway to effector. center. Afferent Efferent pathway pathway Receptor Effector 2 Receptor detects change. 5 Response ofeffector feeds back to reduce 1 Stimulus theeffectof produces stimulus and returns variable changein BALANCE to homeostatic variable. level.  Negative Feedback: reduces stimulus  o The body’s ability to regulate its internal environment is fundamental.  © 2016 PeorsoNegative feedback is to prevent severe changes within the body.   Positive Feedback: enhances the original stimulus  o Proceeds in the same direction as the initial change.      Homeostatic Imbalance: can be a sign of serious disease or disorder and finding solution can be complicated or  impossible.  o As we age, our body controls become less efficient  1.5 Anatomical Terms Describe Body Directions, Regions and Planes Standard anatomical position—body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward with thumbs away from the  body.      Directional terms: describe one body structures in relation to another body structure.      Regional terms: designate specific areas within body divisions.   o    2 major divisions of the body:       Axial: head, neck, and trunk   Appendicular: limbs (legs and arms)   Body Planes and Sections   o    3 most common planes:        Sagittal Plane: divides body into left and right sides.   Midsagittal: cut is on the midline        Parasagittal: cut is off­centered   Frontal (coronal) Plane: divides body vertically into posterior and anterior parts   Transvers: divides body horizontally into superior and inferior parts   Produces cross­section   Oblique Plane: result of cuts at angle other than 90 degrees to vertical plane.  1.6 Many Internal Organs Lie in Membrane­Lined Body Cavities   Body contains internal cavities that are closed to environment   Cavities provide protection      2 sets of cavities:   o    Dorsal Cavity   Protects the fragile nervous system   2 subdivisions:     Cranial­ encases the brain      Vertebral­ encases the spinal cord   o    Ventral Cavity  Houses the internal organs (called viscera)   2 subdivisions which are separated by the diaphragm      Thoracic  o 2 pleural cavities—each cavity surrounds 1 lung   o    Mediastinum: contains pericardial cavity which encloses the heart   o    Abdominopelvic Cavity: stomach, intestines, spleen, liver  o    Pelvic Cavity: urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum      Membranes in Ventral Cavity  o  Serosa/ Serous Membrane : think double layered membranes that cover surfaces in ventral body cavity   Parietal Serosa: lines internal body cavity walls   Visceral Serosa: covers internal organs (viscera)  o Double layers are separated by slit­like cavity filled with serous fluid.  o      Abdominopelvic Quadrants   Right upper quadrant (RUQ)  Left upper quadrant (LUQ)  Right lower quadrant (RLQ)  Left lower quadrant (LLQ)   o    Abdominopelvic Regions   Right hypochondriac region   Epigastric region   Left hypochondriac region   Right lumbar region   Umbilical region   Left lumbar region   Right iliac (inguinal) region   Hypogastric region   Left iliac (inguinal) region  o These are smaller body cavities   Oral and digestive cavities   Nasal cavity  Not exposed!  Orbital cavities   Middle ear cavities   Synovial cavities: joint cavities (exposed)  Outer balloon wall (comparable to parietal serosa) Air (comparable to serous cavity) Inner balloon wall (comparable to visceral serosa) A fist thrust into a flaccid balloon demonstrates the relationship between the parietal and visceral serous membrane layers. Heart Parietal pericardium Pericardial space with serous fluid Visceral pericardium The serosae associated with the heart.


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