1311.002 US History to 1865
1311.002 US History to 1865 History 1311
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Tran on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1311 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Rufki Salihi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see 1311.002 US HISTORY TO 1865 (Rufki Salihi ) in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
1311. US HISTORY . SALIHI 7 September 2016 Introduction – Beginning of English America: 1607 -1700 England and The New World England’s stability in the sixteen century was undermined by religious conflicts. o King Henry the VIII separate from the Church and convert to Protestant after fail to divorce his First wife from the Catholic Pope. England’s method to subdue Ireland in the sixteen and early seventeen centuries established patterns that would be repeated in America. o View Irish as ‘savages’ and wanted to take their land; use violence throughout the feud o The English had no power as state to engage in settlement like Spain at the time. The English Crown issued charters for individuals such as Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh to colonize America at their own expense, but both failed. o There was no finance for the expedition to engage settlement; very limited resources at the early stage of settlement that lead to fail Protestantism Anti-Catholicism had become popular deeply ingrained in English popular culture A Discourse Concerning Western Planting argued that settlement would struck a blow at England’s most powerful Catholic’s enemy: Spain. National glory, profit, and missionary zeal motivated the English crown to settle America with the goal of rivaling Spain and France o Had no attention to use violence to convert the Indians to their religion, similar method to France Social issue A worsening economy and the enclosure movement led to an increase in the number of poor and to a social crisis. o The land was rent; get benefits from the land such as food and shelter but did not own the land o People started to raised sheep for wool for money. Unruly poor were encouraged to leave England for the New World. Master less Men, work in various odd job to work Master less Men Thomas Moor’s Utopia (1516) described a place where settlers could go to escape the economic inequalities of Europe – a place such as many could imagine America to b The English increasingly viewed America as a land where a man could control his own labor, and thus gain independence, particularly through the ownership of land. 1311. US HISTORY . SALIHI 7 September 2016 English Emigrants Sustained immigration was vital for the settlement’s survival. Between 1607 and 1700, a little over half a million people left England. They settled in Ireland, the West Indies, and North America. The majority of settlers in North America were young, single men from the bottom rungs of English society (lower, poor classes) o Most of the people go by themselves rather than with family because it was a dangerous travel to North America 2/3 of English settlers came to North America as indenture servants. Indentured servants did not enjoy any liberties while under contracts. o They have to stay with their contract depending on the years and offers. 80% of the indentured servants either died, went back to England, or stay at the land as poor men Land and Liberty Land was the basis of liberty including voting rights in most colonies Colonies were started as a huge land grants to a company or proprietor. Land was also a source of wealth and power for colonial officials. The book, Westering Planting, specify that England could be engage in trade rather than looking for wealth such as gold and silver; early colonist failed because they were looking for goods. o With trades, colonists would have an easier time to make profit rather than search for gold. Englishmen and Indians The English were chiefly interested in displacing the Indians and settling on their land The English did emphasize converting Indians like the Spanish and French did. The seventeen century was marked by recurrent warfare between the colonists and Indians Wars gave English a heightened sense of superiority, power, pride in the nation. Transforming Life As the English sought to reshaped Indian society and culture, their practices only undermined traditional Indian society. Settlers fenced in more land and introduced more crops and livestock, transforming the natural environment Like other colonial empires, the English used Indians as guides, trading partners, and allies in war. English goods were integrated into Indian life Overtime, those European good changed Indian framing, hunting, and cooking practices. 1311. US HISTORY . SALIHI 7 September 2016 Exchanging with Europeans stimulated warfare between Indian tribes. Settling the Chesapeake: The Jamestown Colony Settlement and survival were questionable in the colony’s early history because the high death rates, frequent changes in leadership, inadequate supplies from England, and placing gold before farming By 1616, about 80% of immigrants who had arrived in the first decade died John Smith’s tough leadership held the early colony together New policies were adopted in 1618 so that the colony could survive. o Headright system o A charter of grants and liberties provided an elected assembly (House of Burgesses), which first met in 1619 The first blacks arrived in 1619, the first hint of slavery in the colony. Powhatan Powhatan, the leader of thirty tribes near Jamestown, eagerly traded with English. English-Indian relations were mostly peaceful early on. Smith tried to maintain peace, but his return to England in 1610 brought out tension and sporadic conflict between two groups. After Pocahontas was captured by the English, she married John Rolfe in 1614, symbolized Anglo-Indian harmony Once the English decided on permanent colony instead of merely a trading post, conflict was inevitable Opechancanough, brother of Powhatan, lead an attack on Virginia’s settlers in 1622 The English forced the subordination to recognize their Jamestown and moves them onto reservation Tobacco Colony Tobacco was Virginia’s “gold” and its production by the 1680s The expansion of tobacco production lead to increased demand of field labor, intensive one. The Maryland Experiment Like Virginia, tobacco came to dominate the economy and tobacco planters in society Maryland was established in1632 as a proprietary colony under Cecilus Calvert Calvert imagined Maryland as a feudal domain Religions on Maryland Calvert envision Maryland as refuge for catholic Most appointed officials were initially Catholic, but Protastend always outnumber Celtic in the colony 1311. US HISTORY . SALIHI 7 September 2016 Although it had high death reads, Maryland offeresservants greater opportuning for land owner ship than Virginias 1311.US HISTORY .SALIHI 9 September 2016 Introduction – The New England and The Rise of Puritanism Puritanism emerged from the Protestant reformation in England Puritans believed that the Church of England retained too many elements of Catholicism o At the time, there was a feud between which religion dominate in Europe: Catholic vs Protestant over political and economic power. Puritans followed the teachings of John Calvin Many puritans immigrated to the New World in Hopes of establishing a Bible Commonwealth that would eventually influence England. That came to America in search of liberty and the right to worship and govern themselves o They believe that people are predestine to their establishment, “God ‘s will” Puritans were governed by “moral liberty” a liberty to that only which is good, which was compatible with severe restrains on speech, religion, and personal behavior. The Church was religious uniform with their structure o Consider to be on congregation level that every church should establish their own church They believe people should be able to read and write from the bible o Supported education to everyone that close with Protestant The Pilgrims at Plymouth Pilgrims sailed in 1620 o Arrive at Cape Cod, aboard the Mayflower Before going ashore, the adults mend signed the Mayflower Compact, the first written frame of government in what is now United States Pilgrims settled first in abandoned Indian Villages as many tribes had been decimated by Europeans disease introduce from traders o European disease such as measles, small pox, etc. that they weren’t use to and weak immune to fight against. Squanto provided much valuable help to the Pilgrims, and the first Thanksgiving in America was celebrated in 1621 o Originally meant to be sold as slave, however was saved by a priest and learned the English language o He later helped settlers& traders with translation with other Indians tribes o He showed them where to gather & hunt food from his geographic experience on land. The Massachusetts Bay Company was charted in 1629 by London merchants, wanting to further the Puritans cause and to turn a profit from trade with the Indians. New England settlement was very different from the settlement in the Chesapeake colonies: o Had more equal balance of men and women 1311.US HISTORY .SALIHI 9 September 2016 o Enjoyed healthier climate o Had more families o It made it possible for number of people to come and live the area. Family & Government Puritans reproduced the family structure of England with men at the head of the household Women were allowed full church membership and divorced was legal, but was expected to obey the husband fully Puritan’s believed that a woman achieved genuine freedom by fulfilling her prescribed social role and embracing subjection to her husband’s authority o This is example of social restriction for women since their purpose was to serve their husband and raise children according to the Puritan’s belief. Everyone had to engage in bible reading at the time in Massachusetts. New England had a higher birth rate than Chesapeake region so much time was spent bearing and rearing children Massachusetts was organized to self-govern towns Each town had congregational church and school o There was a huge empathize involving the Bible To trained an educated ministry, Harvard college was established in 1636 The freeman of mass elected their governed o Full church membership was required to vole in colony wide election Puritans defined liberties by social rank, producing a rigid hierarchal society justified by God’s will o Emphasize this heavily during the time period (mention earlier from the Introduction) Church and colonial government was intricately linked. Although ministries were forbidden to hold office in Massachusetts, church and state were closely interconnected. Puritans, like other faiths, believed that religious was essential to social order; believing of a utopic society Puritans were not tolerant toward other religion o This leads them to be against religion and saw them as “traitors, non- believers, etc” Divisions Roger Williams – a young minister preached that any citizen ought to be free to practice whatever form of religion he chose. o His action will influence others such as Anne Hutchinson, leading to later fall under the Freedom of Speech & Religion under the Bill of Rights in the future. Williams believed that it was essential to separate church and state. Rhode Island and Connecticut 1311.US HISTORY .SALIHI 9 September 2016 Banished from Massachusetts in 1636, Williams established Rhode Island Rhode Island was a beacon of religious freedom and democratic government. Other spin-offs from Massachusetts including New Haven and Hartford, which joined to become the colony of Connecticut in 1662. Trials of Anne Hutchinson Anne Hutchinson - a well-educated articulate woman who charged that nearly all the ministers in Massachusetts were guilty of faulty preaching. Puritans in Massachusetts found the idea of religion pluralism troubling o Hutchinson was placed on trial in 1637 for sedition. Authorities charged her with Antinomianism (putting owns own judgement or faith above human law and church teaching) On trial, she spoke divine revelations o However, she and her followers were banished, she died in what is now New York. As seen with Williams and Hutchinson, Puritans New England was a place of religious intolerance. Relations with Indians At the beginning, colonial leader had differing opinions about the English right to claim Indian land. o They saw themselves as the “first” to take the land to start a new life o At first, they were friendly towards the Indians, however, quickly dissolve into a bickering feud over land. To New England’s leaders, the Indians represented both “savagery and temptation.” The Connecticut General Court set a penalty for anyone who chose to live with the Indians. o They want to separate themselves with any relation with the Indians. The Puritans made no real attempt to convert the Indians in the first two decades. The Pequot War As time progress with white population grew, the conflict with the Indians became unavoidable and the turning point came when a fur trader was willed by Pequot. The colonist warred against Pequot in 1637, massacring 500 the Indian Village of Mystic and exterminating or selling into slavery the tribe. o One of the earliest time involving slavery in America. Removal of the Pequot opened the Connecticut River Valley to rapid white settlement. Unrest existed between Puritans and the Stuart monarchy, leading to the behead of Charles I Commonwealth established under Oliver Cromwell ruled England until 1660 when the monarchy was restored under Charles II 1311.US HISTORY .SALIHI 9 September 2016 English Civil War of 1640s illuminated debates about liberty and what it meant to be free from Englishman. John Milton called for freedom of speech and the press in 1640s o Later influence by the founding father to establish Freedom of Speech & Press. The Levelers called from an even greater expansion of liberty, moving away from the definition based on social class. o Want to eliminate social class during the time. The Diggers was another political groups attempting to give freedom an economic underpinning through common ownership of land. Majority that came over here for land were mostly indentured servants The New England Economy Most migrants were textile craftsmen and farmers. Fishing and timber were exported, but the economy centered on family farms o The main profit was focus on family farming for food. Per capita, wealth was more equally distributed in New England than Chesapeake. A powerful merchant rose up, assuming growing roles based on trade within British Empire. Some clashed within the church and left to establish a new town: o Portsmouth, New Hampshire The Half-Way Covenant By 1650s, many Massachusetts Residents, children of Great Migration generation, had been baptized as infants but could not prove they had underdone the conversion experience for full church membership The question rose: Could children of the second generation be baptized? The grandchildren of the Great Migrations generation to be baptized and be granted a kind of half-way membership in the church. By 1600s, the idea that certain rights of Englishmen applied to all within the kingdom had developed alongside the traditional definitions of liberties This tradition rested on the Magna Carta o was signed by King John in 1215 It is identified a series of liberties, which barons found to be the most beneficial The Magna Carta came to embody the idea of English Freedom: o Habeas Corpus o the right to face one’s accuse o and trial by jury. Cromwell and the Empire o Oliver Cromwell, who ruled England from 1649 until his death in 1658. Pursued an aggressive policy of colonial expansion, promotion 1311.US HISTORY .SALIHI 9 September 2016 Protestant and commercial empowerment in the British Isles & Western Hemisphere. o Next century lead to crisis and consolidation.
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