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KINE 301 - Week 1 - 2016 - Dr. Gibson

by: Jay Ko

KINE 301 - Week 1 - 2016 - Dr. Gibson KINE 301

Marketplace > Rice University > Kinesiology > KINE 301 > KINE 301 Week 1 2016 Dr Gibson
Jay Ko
Rice University
GPA 3.8
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About this Document

Notes for week 1 in the fall 2016 semester in Dr. Gibson's class
Human Physiology
Dr. Brian Gibson
Class Notes
membrane, Physiology




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jay Ko on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KINE 301 at Rice University taught by Dr. Brian Gibson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Kinesiology at Rice University.

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Date Created: 09/09/16
8/26/16 – Ch. 3  Cell Junctions o Cell adhesion molecules or CAMS are essential for normal growth and  development.  o Communicating – gap junctions – connexin (membrane protein) o Occluding – prevent things from moving  Tight junctions  Protein: claudin and occluding o Anchoring  Cell­cell junctions  Adherns junction and desmosome o Cadherin o Actin and intermediate filaments  Cell matrix junctions  Focal adhesion and hemidesmosomes o Integrin  Actin and Keratin o Blisters occur when sheets of tissue separate. Pemphigus is a disease were  cell’s proteins are attacked by own body (autoimmune) causing blistering  and pain o Gap junctions  Lots and lots  Fast transmission o Tight junctions  Occluding junctions  Hold cells together to prevent movement o Desmosome   Anchoring junction  Tissues o Four primary  Epithelial   Connective  Nervous  Muscle o Extracellular Matrix  Extracellular material synthesized and secreted by cells  Many functions  Disease states related to overproduction or disruption  Two basic components  Proteoglycans  Insoluble protein fibers  Nerve and muscle tissues have very little extracellular matrix  Connective tissues have a lot of matrix, and consistency varies a  lot  Watery in blood or calcium phosphate in bone  Epithelial tissues have a basal lamina or basement membrane  Epithelial tissues o Histology – study of tissue structure and function o Histologists – describe the tissues by physical features o One cell thick – simple o Several cells thick – stratified o Flat cells are called squamous and others are columnar or cuboidal o Five categories  Exchange  Leaky epithelial have pores that allow the passage of  molecules  Transporting  One cell thick  Control what goes in and out o Not as easy to transport  Ciliated  Covered one cilia on one side to move fluid across surface  Protective  Cells tightly connected by many desmosomes  Secretory  Protein secreting cells   Endocrine and exocrine o Epithelial cells attached to the basal lamina through cell adhesions  Basal lamina – thin matrix later of collagen and laminin filaments  embedded in proteoglycans  Types of Epithelia o Exchange  Thin, flat cells of exchange epithelium allow movement through  and between the cells  Capillaries o Protective  Many stacked layers of cells constant being replaced – skin o Ciliated Epithelium  Beating cilia create fluid current that sweep across the epithelial  surface o Secretory Epithelium  Secretory epithelial cells make and release a product.  Exocrine secretions such as mucous are secreted outside the body  Glands o Watery or sticky secretions  Endocrine secretions are hormones and released in the blood o Transporting Epithelium  Move substances between lumen and ECF  Tight junctions in a transporting epithelium prevent movement  between adjacent cells.  Substances must instead pass through the epithelial cells, crossing  two phospholipid cell membranes as they do so.  Connective tissue o Extensive extracellular matrix referred to as ground substance o Cells often have suffix  Blast – young/growing  Fibroblast  Clast – older/removing  Osteoclast o Break bone down to release calcium  Cyte – mature/inactive  Osteocyte o Protein fibers  Fibronectin  Fibrillin  Elastin  Collagen o Types of connective tissue  Loose  Dense  Adipose Blood   Cartilage  Bone o Loose  Very flexible with multiple cell types and fibers  Fibroblasts are cells that secrete matrix proteins o Bone and cartilage  Hard bones forms when osteoblasts deposit calcium phosphate  crystals in the matrix.  Cartilage has firm but flexible matrix secreted by cells called  chondrocytes.  o Dense regular connective tissue  Collagen fibers of tendon are densely packed into parallel bundles o Blood  Blood consists of liquid matrix plus red and white blood cells and  cell fragments called platelets o Adipose tissue  In white fat, cell cytoplasm is almost entirely filled with lipid  droplets  Brown fat exists in infants to regulate temperature  Layers of the skin o Sensory receptors (nerve) o Hypodermis contains adipose tissue for insulation (connective) o Sebaceous glands are exocrine glands that secrete a lipid mixture o Arrector pili muscles pull hair follicles into a vertical position when the  muscle contracts, creating goose bumps (muscle) o Epidermis  The skin surface is a mat of linked keratin fivers left behind when  old epithelial cells die  Melanocytes contain the pigment melanin  Characteristics of the Four Tissue Types o Why is cartilage so slow to repair?  Not a lot of blood flow  No oxygen o New alternatives  Take a sample, regrow in a lab, and implant it  Cell Death and Replacement o Necrosis  Trauma, toxins, lack of oxygen o Apoptosis  Normal cell replacement  Programed cell death  Breaks down into blebs and then engulfed cleanly o Skin between fingers and toes o Intestinal lumen cells o Stem cells  Role in cell replacement; research uses potential  Totipotent – can become anything  Pluripotent – 4 days into developing starting to narrow choices   Plasticity – ability to specialize into a cell of a different type from  originally destined.


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