Sociology 1311: Chapter Two
Sociology 1311: Chapter Two SOCI 1311-004
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by M.G on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 1311-004 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Dorothy Kalanzi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Chapter Two The Sociological Investigation 9/01/2016 ● Variables ○ Concepts whose values change from case to case ■ Age ■ Religion ■ Gender ■ Height ■ Weight ■ Etc. ○ Types of variables ■ Independent ● Variables that cause the change ○ Income causes a higher education ○ Education can cause a higher income ● ■ Dependent ● The variable that changes ○ Before education, income is lower ■ Income is dependent ■ Variable pairs ● Lack of exercise and obesity ○ Lack of exercise is independent ○ Obesity is dependent ■ On if you exercise or not ■ Operationalizing a variable ● The process that specifies exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable ○ How do you measure social class? Age? Gender? ○ Operationalizing a variable takes a variable and sets concrete definitions of what is to be measured or studied so that it is clear what is being said ○ Age: How old are you? ● Terminology ○ Correlation ■ A relationship by which two or more variables change together ● One increases while the other decreases ○ Negative correlation ● Both decrease ● Both increase ● I.e if you study, you pass your exam (positive correlation, both increase) ○ Positive correlation ○ Correlation does not equal causation! ■ Spurious correlation ● An apparent, but false correlation between 2 or more variables but is caused by a different variable than the ones tested/compared ● Spurious Correlations fun website to illustrate this fact ○ Reliability ■ A consistency in measurement ● Like a measuring scale, where the measuring device reliably gives the same weight within a reasonable set of values ○ Validity ■ Precision in measuring exactly what needs to be measured ● If you’re trying to measure a person’s aptitude in A&P, don’t ask them the perimeter of the room ○ Objectivity ■ Staying neutral and unbiased ● Don’t twist facts to fit your own notions ○ Replication ■ Repeated research by other investigators to either confirm or deny findings ● Protects against bias ○ Qualitative research ■ Methods ● Does not use statistical, measurable methods, but looks at words and pictures ● Usually consists of interviews ● More open to interpretation, but reveals meaning ○ Quantitative research ■ Methods ● Measurable, statistical method dealing with quantities and mathematics ● Provides data to calculate averages, percentages, and other statistical reporting methods ○ Hypothesis ■ An unverified statement of a relationship between variables; an educated guess ● Gender and Research ○ Androcentricity ■ Approaching a topic from a male only perspective ○ Gynocentricity ■ Approaching a topic from a female only perspective ○ Over generalizing ■ Using data collected from one population group and applying the findings to everyone ○ Gender blindness ■ Failure to consider the impact of gender on what is being studied ● Ethical guidelines for research ○ Researchers need to be competent in their work, I.e they need to know what they're doing ○ Researchers need to be fairly minded ○ Researchers must disclose all findings and not omit any important data ○ Researchers must be willing to share all data for verification via replication ○ Researchers must obtain informed consent ■ The subjects must know their risks and responsibilities ■ If the subjects do not agree, they can not take part in the study ○ Researchers must first have their study approved by the institutional review board (IRB) ○ Researchers must protect the safety, rights, and privacy of those they are researching ○ Researchers must disclose all sources of funding ○ Researchers must avoid conflicts of interest ○ Researchers must demonstrate cultural sensitivity ● Survey research ○ Participants respond to questions from a questionnaire or interview ● Methods ○ Interviews ■ A series of questions a researcher asks in person to subjects ○ Participant observation ■ The researcher observes people and takes notes on how they behave ○ Secondary analysis ■ Using data collected by others to help your research ● Content analysis ○ Analyzing the content of various cultural artifacts ● Research process ○ General theory ○ Hypothesis ■ Deductive ○ Specific observations ○ Generalization ■ Inductive ● Inductive logic ○ Where we induce a theory ■ Reasoning beginning with observations ending with a theory ● Deductive logic ○ Begins with a theory, then observations and testing of that theory occurs to either confirm or deny the logic
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