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KINE 301 - Week 3 - 2016 - Dr. Gibson

by: Jay Ko

KINE 301 - Week 3 - 2016 - Dr. Gibson KINE 301

Marketplace > Rice University > Kinesiology > KINE 301 > KINE 301 Week 3 2016 Dr Gibson
Jay Ko
Rice University
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

Notes from week 3 of 2016 fall semester with Dr. Gibson
Human Physiology
Dr. Brian Gibson
Class Notes
membrane, transport, Physiology, Kinesiology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jay Ko on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KINE 301 at Rice University taught by Dr. Brian Gibson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Kinesiology at Rice University.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Ch. 5 – 9/7/16  Body fluid components o 70kg man is the model/standard o Intracellular fluid/extracellular fluid  Intra is much larger in water o Intracellular fluid has much more potassium  o Water can follow protein and cause swelling  Water content differs between age, gender  Osmosis and osmotic pressure o Osmolarity is the number of particles in the solution, no molecules, that  differs from molarity.   Comparing osmolarity o Osmolarity is the concentration of osmotically active particles o Osmolality is per kilogram or weight  o When talking about a human body – aqueous solutions and the human  body is so dilute that a liter of solution is about a kilogram.  o Ex.   Solution A is 1 OsM Glucose and B is 2 OsM glucose.  A is hyposmotic to B  B is hyperosmotic to A o Ex.   Solution A is hypotonic when cell swells.  Solution C is hypertonic when cell shrinks  Penetrating and Nonpentrating o NaCL is the most important non penetrating  Intravenous solutions o Tonicity is usually never hypertonic. o Don’t want cells to shrink.   Map of membrane transport o Molecular motion without the use of ATP  Diffusion – simple and facilitated o Requires energy  Endocytosis  Exocytosis  Phagocytosis  Primary active transport  Can set up second concentration gradient for secondary  active transport.   Properties of diffusion o  Diffusion of kinetic energy does not require an outside energy source. o Molecules diffuse from higher to lower amount of concentration  o Diffusion continues until concentrations come to equilibrium  o Diffusion is faster if  Along higher concentration gradients  Shorter distances  Higher temperature  Smaller molecules o Diffusion is faster across a membrane if  Membrane surface area is larger  Thinner   More permeable  Concentration gradient is larger  Fick’s Law o Rate of diffusion = surface area x concentration gradient x membrane  permeability  Membrane receptor proteins bind extracellular ligands o Ligands bind to a cell membrane receptor o Receptor­ligand complex triggers intracellular response o Triggers events in the cell  Membrane transporters o Channel proteins move tens of millions of ions per second.  Gated open and close depending on signals  Open – always open o Carrier proteins  Move 1000 to 1,000,000 molecules per second  Never form an open channel between the two sides of the  membrane  Uniport  Symport  Antiport  Structure of channel proteins o Many channels are made of multiple proteins subunits that assemble in the membrane  Facilitated diffusion by means of a carrier protein  Facilitated diffusion of glucose o Facilitated diffusion brings glucose into the cell down its concentration  gradient o Diffusion reaches equilibrium when the glucose concentrations inside and  outside the cell are equal. o Conversion of imported glucose into glucose 6­phosphate G6P keeps  intracellular glucose concentrations low so that diffusion never reaches  equilibrium.  Primary active transporters o Na+ Ka+ ATPase = antiport o Ca2+ ATPase = uniport o H+ ATPase or proton pump o H+ K+ ATPase  Mechanism of the Na+ K+ ATPase  Examples of Secondary Active Transport o Many things do get moved through secondary active transport. o SGLT is one of importance  Sodium glucose transporter  Relevant for normal homeostasis  Mechanism of SGLT o In the intestine or in the kidney o Glucose in the lumen is low and the NA+ is low in the protein o Sodium binds to the site and creates a high affinity site for glucose to bind.  Glucose needs to go against its concentration gradient  GLUT Family specificity  o GLUT 1 – most cells o GLUT 2 – liver, kidney, intestine o GLUT 3 – Neurons o GLUT 4 – Insulin regulated in skeletal muscle o GLUT 5 – Intestine, fructose  Maltose o Maltose is a competitive inhibitor that binds to the GLUT transporter but  is not itself carried across the membrane  Transport maximum o All of the carriers can be saturated and will reach a transport maximum o Need to create more transporters – DNA to RNA to AAs  But takes too long  Phagocytosis  Endocytosis o Not a bacterium or large molecule o Ligand binds to a receptor  Will migrate to a clathrin coated pit  This area will pinch in  Pulls both ligand and receptor into the vesicle.  Polarized cells of transporting epithelia o Different on one face than they are on the basal lateral side  Transepithelial transport of glucose o Blocked with Oubain – poison  GLU movement stops  Transcytosis across the capillary endothelium  Separation of electrical charge: the membrane potential difference o In the laboratory, a cell’s membrane potential is measured by placing one  electrode inside the cell and the other in an extracellular bath o The voltmeter measures the difference in electrical charge between the  inside of a cell and the surrounding solution. This value is the membrane  potential difference ormV . o Cells are more negative inside than outside  Due to Ca, N, K, Cl  3 + 2 pump sodium potassium.  3 positive move out and 2 positive move in  Resting membrane potential in an actual cell o Why is resting membrane potential due mostly to potassium K+?  o Potassium is more permeable than the others  Membrane potential terminology o Moving toward 0 mV means you is depolarizing. o When mV increases, it is called repolarization.  Hyperpolarization can occur  Insulin secretion and membrane transport processes o Beta cell at rest  The KATP channel is open and the cell is at its resting membrane  potential  When potassium channel is open, K+ is leaking out of the cell   Normal resting state  Voltage gated Ca2+ channel is closed o Beta cell secretes insulin  Closure of KATP channel and depolarizes the cell triggering  exocytosis of insulin  Cystic Fibrosis o What is cystic fibrosis?  o What is the mechanistic cause?   CFTR channel  Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator o Supposed to be able to move chloride ions  Cilia get stuck and mucous gets stuck there  Symptoms  Thickening of mucous in the respiratory system, airway  mucous  Sweat is very concentrated with sodium  Can’t absorb nutrients – pancreatic issue o Which tissues does it affect and how? 


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