Fort Mose Detailed Timeline
Fort Mose Detailed Timeline ANT 4315
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Parker on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 4315 at Florida Atlantic University taught by Susan L Brown in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see African-American Anthropology in Biology/Anthropology at Florida Atlantic University.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Fort Mose A Timeline of events as documented in Fort Mose: Colonial America’s Black Fortress of Freedom 700-1400: Islamic Moors occupied parts of Iberia Islamic Moors: Spanish term for people from north Africa Moors brought slaves and settlers of many nationalities, familiarizing Spain with Africans (both free and enslaved) and with the practice of slavery. Slavery in Moorish Iberia was not defined by race or color. People of many nationalities and races owned slaves and were enslaved. 1250 : Islamic Moors expelled from modern-day Portugal 1440 : Portuguese ruler Prince Henry the Navigator opened the African trade This led Portugal to control the slave trade in Iberia and in the early Americas. 1454 & 1456 : Catholic popes declared enslavements of Africans was justified on the grounds that it would bring them Christianity 1492 : Spain had slaves who were Jewish, Moorish, “Turkish” (actually Egyptians, Syrians, and Lebanese), white Christians (Sardinians, Greeks, Russians), Canary Island natives (Guanches), and black Africans The Spanish slave code: provided slaves with specific rights o Slaves could buy their own freedom o Slaves could maintain family cohesiveness o Slaves could sue their masters for mistreatment The Spanish slave code was brought to the Americas and differentiated the treatment of slaves by the Spanish colonies and the English colonies. 1492 : Islamic Moors expelled from southern Spain 1 ANT 4315 1495 : First slaves traveled across the Atlantic Caribbean Indians enslaved by Columbus Sent to Ferdinand and Isabella’s court 1496 : Juan Garrido, a free African, made his way from Seville, Spain to Hispaniola Became known for exploits with Ponce de Leon’s Caribbean expeditions Joined Cortes in Mexico fighting battles at Tenochtitlan 1520s : Much of the Caribbean Indian population nearly extinct Could not handle European diseases like smallpox, influenza, and the cold Deaths left Spaniards in need of laborers, so they enslaved millions of Africans and brought them to the Americas Africans only group in the Americas in the 1500s with immunity to diseases of three continents Evidence of exploitation of Africans by Spaniards is seen at Spanish site Puerto Real in Haiti. Spanish used traditional Taino cookware; after 1525, Taino cookware was replaced by a European type of pottery 1522 : African slave uprising in Santo Domingo 1523 : African slave uprising in Mexico 1526 : African slave uprising in Vasquez de Allyon 1526 : First African settlers came to the United States in South Carolina Spanish explorer Vasquez de Allyon established the town of San Miguel de Gualdape in present-day Georgia 500 Spaniards and 100 African laborers came with him Colony failed due to Indian hostility and a slave rebellion Many Africans remained after escaping to forests to live in freedom with the Indians 1530 : African slave uprising in Cuba 1530 : five year old Colombian capital destroyed by slave rebellions 2 ANT 4315 Many slaves would escape to inhospitable parts of swamps or mountains and form runaway communities, which were often allied with Indians, and they successfully waged guerilla warfare against European towns and settlers. This eventually led to peace treaties in the sixteenth century with the Spaniards Communities also known as “cimarron”, “palenque”, or “maroon” towns 1546 : Governor of Chile gave Juan Valiente, black slave to Alonso Valiente, a large estate and several Indian towns that had to pay him tribute. Joined many expeditions with his master, Alonso, and fought with Spanish soldiers in Guatemala, Peru and Chile Married a free black woman, Juana de Valdivia Killed in action in 1553, still a slave Alonso sued for Juan’s property and tribute after death 1550s : Black skin came to be mentally associated with hard physical labor in the Americas 1565 : Saint Augustine established in Spanish Florida Africans from the Caribbean and South America along with Africa were part of the colony since it was founded 1686 : Spain announced that slaves would receive religious sanctuary 1687 : First slaves arrived in Saint Augustine 1693 : King Charles II of Spain issued royal proclamation in the status of runaways to Florida, stating that they would “…give liberty to all…the men as well as the women…so that by their example and by my liberality others will do the same…” By allowing refugees to come to Spanish Florida, the economy of English colonies suffered Added skilled workers and Catholic converts to the Spanish colonies 1700 : Approximately 1.5 million African slaves had been brought to the Americas Many slaves from the Caravali (Calabar), Mandingo, Congo and other West African areas Also from Mina, Guinea, Gambia, and Arara areas 3 ANT 4315 Some came from Cuba, Jamaica, Barbados, Antigua, Venezuela, Colombia, and the Canary Islands 1726 : Francisco Menendez made Captain of the St. Augustine slave militia Was an escaped slave himself 1738 : Over 100 enslaved Africans had escaped to Saint Augustine, prompting the Spanish government to establish a fort and community two miles north of Saint Augustine, called Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose Many male fugitives from Carolina were made members of the Spanish slave militia Members from the Spanish slave militia formed a free black company Menendez became captain of the Mose militia 38 households of men, women and children at Mose 1739 : Black workers at Stono near Charleston launched the largest slave uprising in the history of the North American Colonies Many armed slaves joined to march to Florida in order to become free, but were then stopped by white militia 1740 : English forces attacked St. Augustine, led by General James Oglethorpe of Georgia Captured Fort Mose Mose population escaped and joined St. Augustine Oglethorpe’s men occupied Fort Most but were ultimately defeated Fort Mose was left with extensive damage and the community was abandoned for 12 years 1752 : Fort Mose was reconstructed at a slightly different location Former residents felt pressured by Spanish authorities to move back to Mose Fort Mose served as the first line of defense against the English for St. Augustine Larger fort than the first, as it had a walled enclosure, a moat, and many buildings. One side was open along a creek 1759 : Fort Mose consisted of 22 thatch huts, housing 67 people, which included 37 men, 15 women, 7 boys, and 8 girls Small, palm-thatch huts 4 ANT 4315 Resembled those of Indians Some were oval shaped and about 12 feet in diameter 1763 : Mose was abandoned as an African-American community The French and Indian war ended The Treats of Paris gave Florida to England, and Cuba to Spain The people of Mose left and sailed to Cuba along with the 86 Indians who lived in St. Augustine English refurbished Fort Mose and used it as a fort 1784 : Spaniards returned and used Mose as a military outpost 1812 : Mose was destroyed and abandoned Fort was occupied by “Florida Patriots” who wanted to capture Florida for the United States They failed and the fort was destroyed by Spanish, African, and Indian troops. The fort fell into ruin until it was rediscovered more than 150 years later. 5 ANT 4315
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