Notes from 9/6-8/16
Notes from 9/6-8/16 2210
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by The EIU Scientist on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2210 at Eastern Illinois University taught by Dr. Nida Elmuti in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Biology at Eastern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Chapter 4 Characteristics of Connective Tissue 1 Opposite of Epithelium tissue: cells are very spread apart Functions 1 Connects (muscles to muscle, bone to muscle, bone to bone) 2 Protection 3 Transport 4 Support Classification of Connective Tissue 1 Connective Tissue proper Connect and protect Two forms Loose Connective tissue Ex: Fat, muscle cells between fibers Dense Connective tissue Ex: Tendons and Ligaments, Sclera of the Eye 1 Fluid connective tissues Transport Ex: Blood Vessels - Red blood cells (erythrocytes) a) 4.5 million in females b)Lack organelles c)Live for 3-4 months d)Packed with hemoglobin and that helps with transporting CO2 & O2 - White blood cells (leukocytes) a)About 6,000 b)5 kinds of white blood cells a They have organelles and nuclei b One of them protects against viruses c Each one has a specific function d In general protects against bacteria, viruses e Made in the bone marrow - Platelets (little tiny fragments of cells) a) Don’t have organelles b) Important for clotting mechanism 1. Supporting connective tissue Structural strength Cartilage is the main supporting tissue Made up of chondrocytes (cartilage cells) a Hyaline cartilage Very flexible, bendable In the Nose a Elastic cartilage Supportive but bendable, stretches In the ears a Ficrocartilage Does not bend or stretch, found in vertebrae discs Bone is a Connective Tissue (IT"S ALIVE) Osteocytes (mature bone cells) Arranged around the central canals (blood vessels) within the matrix a Osteopenia- thinning of bones, Osteoporosis- weakening of the bons Small channels through the matrix (canaliculi) access blood supply; the branches that give rise to each cell Periosteum a Covers bone surface Muscle Tissue (3 Types) Specialized for contraction, protection, and generating heat 1 Skeletal Striated (lines within the muscles)that have Sarcomeres in them Voluntary Contractile Muscles (you have control over it, dependent on the nervous system) Largest cells Cylindrical in shape Equally in shape Multinucleated Lots of Mitochondria Lots of glycogen granutes for the mitochondria (glycose is stored) 1 Cardiac Striated (lines within the muscles) that have Sarcomeres in them Involuntary Contractile Muscles (independent of the nervous system, you don't have to think about it) Much smaller cells Only found in the heart Connected by gap junctions (intercalated discs) 1 Smooth Lacks striations Do not have sarcomeres But have similar methods of contractions Involuntary Contractile Muscles Found in the eye, in the digestive system, respiratory system, urinary system, lots of places Have curved endings Nervous Tissue found in the brain (90%) and the spinal cord, concentrated in the central nervous system Neuron (MILLIONS) 1 Cell Body w/ nucleus -responsible for metabolism 1 Dendrites (bare parts) Receive signals from other/ near by neurons Receive signals through chemical, neurotransmitter through specific cite on the dendrite 1 Axon Transmit signal to adjacent neuron The signal is always one direction, doesn’t go backwards 1 Axon Hillock Where the electrical signal is initiated Where the axon connects 1 Axon Terminal The bulbs/ balls at the end of the axons Stores the chemicals for neurotransmitters 1 Myelin Sheath Fat around the Axon Neuroglia Cells Support the functions of neurons (all parts of the neuron) Constantly being made by mitosis Brain damage= Neurons Brain Tumors = Neuroglia cells Tissue destruction is called necrosis vs. Apoptosis Necrosis- cells being destroyed by diseases (BAD) Apoptosis- scheduled cell death, beneficial to the body and other cells (GOOD/HEALTHY) Tuesday and Wednesday 5-8pm Tutoring Sessions Chapter 5 Integumentary System (largest system in the body) Sixteen percent of body weight Made up two parts 1 Skin or Cutaneous 1 Accessory Structures Two Components of the Cutaneous Membrane Outer epidermis Superifcial epithelium (epithelial tissue) Inner Dermis (Papillary and Reticular) Connective Tissue Some nervous tissue as well Hypodermis Loose connective tissue (fat cells) Below the dermis Location of hypodermic injections ****Sebaceous gland always attached to a hair follicle **** KNOW AS WELL Skin Function Protection Excretion of salts, water, and organic waste with glands Thermoregulation- maintaining body temperature (keeping heat in and making it exit) Production of melanin Synthesis of Vitamin D3 Epidermis Avascular (no blood flow) stratified squamous epithelium Nutrients and oxygen are diffused from capillaries in the dermis (layer below) Structure of the Epidermis Stratum Corneum (horn layer) a Dead flat cells b Made up of keratinocytes c Water resistant but not water proof a Permits slow water loss by insensible perspiration Stratum Lucidum (thick skin like your heel) a Appears as a glassy layer in thick skin only Stratum Granulosum ( grainy) a Keratinocytes produce Keratohyalin and keratin a Keratin fibers develop as cells become thinner and flatter a Plasma membrane thickens, the organelles disintegrate, and the cells die Stratum Spinosum (spiny) a Keratinocytes are bound together by desmosomes Stratum Basale a Deepest, basal layer b Makes melanin c Joins epidermis and dermis Come Lets Get Sun Burnt- NO! Skin Color (TWO PIGMENTS) Carotene- creates that yellowish appearance Melanin- creates a tan appearance Bad Coloration 1 Jaundice- yellowing of the skin (babies its normal because of bial build up in the liver) Bad for adults to have jaundice, can be a sign for liver failure or liver cancer 1 Pituitary tumor Excess Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone 1 Addison's Disease- you don't make enough hormones and you always look tan 2 Vitiligo- damaged melanocytes, you get patches of white skin. Vitamin D is absorbed by calcium and phosphorous to build strong bones. Lack of Vitamin D Rickets (bowing of the knees) Dermis (two layers) 1 Papillary layer: Nourishes the epidermis 2 Deep Reticular layer: has sensory receptors and blood vessels Dermatitis Inflammation of the papillary later Caused by infection, radiation, mechanical irritation, or chemicals (ex: poison Ivy) Characterized by itch or pain Skin Damage Sagging and wrinkles (reduced skin elasticity) are caused by: a Dehydration b Age c Hormonal changes d UV exposure e Stretch Marks Thickened tissue resulting from excessive stretching of skin due to : Pregnancy or Loss of Weight Hypodermis (Subcutaneous Layer) Made of Adipose tissue (fat cells) Liposuction Hair, Hair Follicles, Sebaceous Glands, Sweat glands, and Nails Integumentary accessory structures Located in dermis Project through the skin surface Effects of aging on the integumentary system
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