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Intro to Statistics Chapter 2 Notes

by: Michaela Zerbo

Intro to Statistics Chapter 2 Notes STAT 145

Marketplace > Rochester Institute of Technology > Statistics > STAT 145 > Intro to Statistics Chapter 2 Notes
Michaela Zerbo
GPA 3.1
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About this Document

These notes cover and explain the charts/graphs and how to properly label and use them.
Intro to Stats
Professor Nilay Sapio
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michaela Zerbo on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to STAT 145 at Rochester Institute of Technology taught by Professor Nilay Sapio in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Intro to Stats in Statistics at Rochester Institute of Technology.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
1  STAT 145  Introduction to Statistics 1  Chapter 2 ­ Organizing and Summarizing Data  Terms    ​ ormulas    2.1 Organizing Qualitative Data    Objectives: ​Group data in tables / Construct bar  graphs and pie charts       Frequency Distribution:​ ​A number of  occurrences for each category of the data      Relative Frequency:​ Proportion of  observations within a category       Relative Frequency = Frequency / Sum of ALL Frequencies      Example:  Take a bag of M&M’s and determine the (rel.) frequency and put it into a chart                            2      Bar Graphs:     ● Used to compare between categories  ● Categories are either presented on vertical or  horizontal axis.                    Pareto Chart: ​A chart where the bars are  drawn in decreasing order                    Side­by­Side Chart: ​ A bar graph with the  bars directly next to one another                  Stacked Bar Chart: ​A graph that is used  to break down data as a whole  3      Pie Chart:   ● Circle divided into sectors based on  categories  ● The area of each sector is  proportional to the frequency of said  category       Relative Frequency  x  360  =  Degree Measure        2.2 Organizing Quantitative Data    Objectives: ​Organize discrete and continuous data / Construct Histograms          Stem­and­Leaf Plot:  ● Rightmost digit is LEAF  ● Left digit is STEM                  Dot Plot:  ● Place number on horizontal axis  ● Record each frequency vertically by  placing the dot directly above the  number      4  Shape of a Distribution:                      2.3 Additional Displays of Quantitative Data    Objectives: O ​ gives    Ogive (“oh jive”)    Cumulative Frequency Distribution:  Total number of observations less than or  equal to the upper class limit    Cumulative Relative Frequency:   Percent of observations less then or equal  to the upper class limit        2.4 Graphical Misrepresentations of Data    Objectives: ​Misrepresented Charts    Common Misrepresentations:  ● Scale of the graphs  ● Inconsistent scales  ● Misplaced origins            5  Key things to do when constructing a graph / chart  1. Avoid 3­D charts  2. Be consistent  3. Display units of measurements  4. Note data source  5. Label titles and axis’ 


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