Music 101, Week 2 Notes
Music 101, Week 2 Notes Music 101
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zackary Windham on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Music 101 at Brigham Young University taught by Hannah C. McLaughlin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Music in Music at Brigham Young University.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Unit 1: Materials of Music The Enjoyment of Music- Ch. 4, “The Organization of Musical Sounds” Pitches, also referred to as notes, are named with the first seven letters of the alphabet, A through G. An octave is when two notes sound the “same” but one is higher or lower. An octave is eight notes apart on a scale (not the chromatic scale). In western music, an octave is divided into 12 equal semitones, or half-steps (that’s where the chromatic scale comes in). Non-western music divides an octave into even smaller steps called microtones. The chromatic scale is the 12 half steps in an octave. A sharp raises a note one half step, and a flat lowers a note one half step. One whole step is two half steps. A key is defined by the tonic (tonics discussed in Ch. 3); the key of C is centered around the tone of C. A major scale is important; it always begins on the tonic and follows this specific pattern (W= whole step, H= half step): W-W-H-W-W-W-H. Following this pattern, a major scale can be built using any pitch as the tonic. Within a scale there always exists tension and resolution. The seventh pitch wants to move on to the eighth pitch, the second wants to move down to the first. The fifth pitch is called the dominant pitch; this represents an active harmony with the tonic. The minor scale follows this pattern: W-H-W-W-H-W-W. This means the third, sixth, and seventh have all been flatted from the major scale. Diatonic (Baroque, Classical) pieces a firmly rooted in a major or minor scale, but chromatic (Romantic) pieces use the full range of pitches. Non-western scales included the pentatonic, 5 note scale, and tritonic, 3 note scale. To produce microtones on a Western instrument, one must use inflection of pitch, shifting it slightly up or down without moving all the way to the next half step. The triad (triads discussed in Ch. 3) built on the first note in the scale is the tonic chord, I chord, or rest chord. Active chords are built on other notes in the scale and look to be resolved in the rest chord. The dominant chord is formed on the fifth note; it is the main active chord, the V chord. The subdominant chord is built on the fourth note, the IV chord. Modulation is a changing of key to a related key, such as shifting from C major to G major. Transposition is different because it is not a key change in the middle of the song; it is when the entire song is shifted to a different key, usually to make it easier to play. The Enjoyment of Music- Ch. 5, “Musical Texture” This material was also discussed on Day 2- 31 Aug 2016. Texture is made up of melodic lines. Monophony has no harmony, just a single melodic line; rhythm and percussion can accompany, but only one set of changing pitches. Heterophony has one melodic line sung or played by several musicians but each varies a little bit. 2 Polyphony has two or more melodic lines moving against each other; based on counterpoint, in that they are set against each other. Homophony has one melodic line with accompanying lines behind it, usually harmonies. Homorhythm is a homophony where all the voices move together in one rhythm; there is still one melody with several harmonies, but they all share the same rhythm. In polyphony, a melodic idea will sometimes be stated by one line then repeated by another; this is called imitation. A strictly imitative work is known as a canon, when the melodic ideas are being repeated the whole piece. The most familiarly form of a canon is a round, like “Row, Row, Row Your Boat”. The Enjoyment of Music- Ch. 6, “Musical Form” Form refers to a work’s structure or shape. In music, repetition and contrast are very important. A popular structure in vocal music is strophic form (repetition), where the same melody is repeated with each stanza of text. The opposite of this is through-composed form (contrast), where no section of the music or text is repeated. Between repetition and contrast lies variation; the tune is altered, but still recognizable. Each composer creates his or her own unique form; sometimes, in improvisation, the performers join in. Binary form has a statement and departure, without return to the opening section. Ternary form returns the first section after departure. 3 A theme is a melodic idea used as a building block in a larger piece. When it is varied and changed and expanded, this is thematic development. Melodic ideas may be restated at different pitch levels; this is a sequence. A theme can be divided into melodic-rhythmic units called motives; ie. “Land where my fathers died,” is a motive, like “Land of the pilgrim’s pride,”. Call and response, or responsorial music usually involves a singing leader imitated or answered by a chorus. Ostinato is a short musical pattern (melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic) repeated throughout a work or a major section of a piece. A movement is a complete and comparatively independent division of a large scale work. The Enjoyment of Music- Ch. 8, “Music and Words” Nonlexical syllables are essentially nonsensical; not meant to be understood, such as scat-singing, a jazz technique for vocal improvisation. Vocalise is a technique where the voice is used simply as an instrument, and notes are usually sung on one syllable like “ah”. Poems are written in stanzas or strophes (remember strophic form from Ch. 6?). Many songs have a refrain or chorus, words and music that occur after each stanza. Text-setting styles: -Syllabic: each syllable gets one note. -Neumatic: a few notes to each syllable. -Melismatic: many notes to each syllable. 4 A melisma is a long syllable moving through many notes; sometimes referred to as word-painting. Day 5- 9 Sep 2016 Instrument families: Voices- “a cappella” literally means in the chapel, but now means without instruments. Chordophones- instrument with a vibrating string. Playing with a bow is arco but plucking the strings is pizzicato. Aerophones- wind instruments, anything you blow into. There are brass instruments, where you buzz into a mouthpiece. There are also woodwind instruments, that usually have a reed that vibrates when air is blown past it (except the flute, the reed mechanism is inside the tube). Membranophones- something that has a membrane that vibrates when it is hit; most drums. Idiophones- anything that vibrates by itself when hit. Cowbell, maracas, symbols, etc. Keyboards- piano, organ, harpsichord, etc. Electronics A chamber ensemble is a small group of usually instrumental musicians; each player has his or her own unique part. Quartets, quintets, etc. A band often uses winds or percussion. The orchestra is the large, full ensemble. Strings come in the front. Woodwinds go in the middle, and the percussion and brass go in the back. The conductor goes in the very front. 5 Instrumentation means which instruments are being used. Orchestration is how the instruments are being used. Important for the test. The Enjoyment of Music- Ch. 10, “Western Musical Instruments String instruments -Two types: those that are bowed and those that are plucked. -Violin, viola, violoncello (cello), double bass -Can play legato (long) or staccato (short) -Can do vibrato by slightly altering the pitch rapidly; glissando by swooping through pitches; tremolo by rapidly repeating a tone; and trill by alternating between a note and one adjacent to it. -Double-stopping is playing two strings at once, triple- stopping is three, and so on. -Mutes fit over the bridge and muffled the sound. Harmonics are produced by touching the string at specific points while the bow is drawn across the strings. -Harp, guitar Woodwind instruments -Aerophones -Either blow into a mouth hole, across a reed, or across a double reed. -Flute, piccolo, oboe, English horn, clarinet, bass clarinet, bassoon, contrabassoon, saxophone Brass instruments -Aerophones -Buzz into a mouthpiece. -Trumpet, French horn, trombone, tuba, cornet, bugle, fluegelhorn, euphonium, sousaphone. 6 Percussion instruments -Includes membranophones and idiophones. -Timpani, xylophone, marimba, vibraphone, glockenspiel, celesta, chimes, snare drum, bass drum, tom-tom, tambourine, castanets, triangle, cymbals, gong, tam-tam. Keyboard instruments -Piano, organ, harpsichord. -Maybe chordophones? The Enjoyment of Music- Ch. 11, “Musical Ensembles” A chorus is usually a large body of singers who perform together, while a choir is traditionally smaller. What we know as a symphony orchestra in the west can also be called an orchestra, but the term orchestra is loosely used to define and performing ensemble of various instrumentation. Bands can include, wind/concert bands, marching bands, jazz bands, and rock bands. The conductor conducts with a baton; he or she unifies the ensemble and guides them in tempo, dynamics, and style. A concertmaster is the first-chair violinist. The Enjoyment of Music- Ch. 12, “Style and Function of Music in Society” There is a style of music for every occasion, but many cultures do not have the same occasions, so styles become unique to culture. A genre is a general term that suggests something of the overall character of the work as well as its cultural function; different from form, the structure. Genres include songs, symphonies, operas, etc. 7 A medium is the specific group that performs the piece. Works are sometimes identified through a cataloguing system, using opus numbers (opus means “work” in Latin). Some music is not written down, but transferred by oral transmission. Remember, though we don’t study them, vernacular music (popular or traditional music) is just as culturally important. Style is the characteristic way an artwork is presented. 8
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