POLS1030 What is science?
POLS1030 What is science? POLS1030
Popular in Comparative contemporary Political Systems
Popular in Political Science
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janelle Darby on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS1030 at Robert Morris University taught by G.W. jones in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Comparative contemporary Political Systems in Political Science at Robert Morris University.
Reviews for POLS1030 What is science?
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/09/16
W2 What is science? Tuesday, September 6, 2016 9:33 AM Science Not a collection of facts that we know Scientific theory is not one that has been proven Politics can be studied in a scientific manner Political Science(poli sci) Study of politics in a scientific manner Science is a method for provisionally understanding the world and a quest for knowledge Falsifiability Quest for knowledge that relies on criticism o Allows criticism; is the possibility that our theories or claims might be wrong Falsifiable o Must be an imaginable observation that could falsify the theory o All scientific statements must be testable o Does not mean the theories will be falsified (just a possibility) Non- Falsifiability Tautologies o A tautology is a statement that is true by definition Statements about unobservable phenomena Scientific Method The scientific method describes the process by which scientist learn about the world Method 1. Question 2. Theory: to describe a set of logically consistent statements that tell us why the things that we observe occur 3. Implication: deducing implications from the model other than those we set out to explain in the first place 4. Observe world: examine the implication to see if they are consistent with the observation 5. Evaluation Comparative Method Common method employed by political scientist to learn about the world Mill’s Methods o Method of Agreement o Method of difference o John Stuart Mill, A system of logic, 1843 Valid and Invalid Arguments Argument: logically connected statements in the form of a set of premises with a conclusion Premise: presumed to be true within the context of an argument leading to a conclusion Conclusion: Argument is a claim that is thought to be supported by the premise Valid: Accepting the premises compels us to accept the conclusion W2 Invalid: accept the premises free to reject or accept conclusion Categorical Syllogism Major premise: conditional statement “If P, then Q.” o The “If” part is called the antecedent. o The “then” part is called the consequent. o Ex: “If a country is wealthy, then it will be a democracy.” Minor premise: claim about either the antecedent or the consequent of the conditional statement. Conclusion: claim that is thought to be supported by the premises. Testing theories Deductive learning: forms expectations based on a theory and the finds observations Inductive learning: starts with observations, finds patterns that can be used to generate explanations o Induction= problematic because it relies on verifying the consequent o Theory is never exposed to falsificationism Comparative Method Scholars that use the comp method collect observations about the world and then use them to make general theories about political phenomena Necessary conditions o Circumstance in whose absence the event in question cannot occur Ex: Y never happens unless X happens oxygen is necessary for fire Sufficient condition o Circumstance in whose presence the event in question must occur Ex: Y always happens if X happens Fire is a sufficient cause for smoke Mills proposed methods o Method of agreement: the cases agree on the phenomenon to be explained o Method of difference: cases differ on the phenomenon explained