PSYC 361 - 1
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tricia Mae Fortuna on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 361 at Towson University taught by DR. ERIN GIRIO-HERRERA in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
361 Abnormal Behavior 8/30/2016 What is Abnormal? Some say… Personal distress to the individual? Deviance of cultural norms? Statistical infrequency? (born with one arm) Impaired functioning? (paying bills) Threat to public safety? Harmful Dysfunctional Theory James Wakefield (1992): o DISORDER is a “harmful dysfunction” o “Dysfunction” is a scientific term – refers to failure of MENTAL MECHANISM to perform a function in which it was designed to do o It’s not working the wat it should work Term combines SOCIAL (cultural context) and SCIENTIFIC VALUES (evolutionary) PSYCHOPATHOLOGY: Development Matters! Developmental Psychopathology: involves considering: o Normal Development: deviations from the norm o Complex Interactions: between individuals and their environment over time Biological Psychological Socio-economical o Developmental Pathways: toward healthy and unhealthy outcomes Progress builds over time Early developmental experiences “set the groundwork” for later experiences Consider: Normal Curve of Grief and How long… o JOHANNE: lives in Haiti and her depression began after the massive earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010, killing 250,000 people and leaving 1.5 million homeless o Consider Distress & Impairment, Cultural Norms, Context/Situation, & Development Who should decide? The definitions of universal psychological wellness or Disorder? Experts, Authority, DSM committee Abnormal Behavior: A psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning that is not typical or culturally expected DSM-V 2013 contains diagnostic criteria Psychopathology: the scientific study of psychological disorders What is a PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDER? Psychological Dysfunction: Abnormal cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning o Could be “since forever” or “change from baseline” Impairment or Personal Distress o Problems with interpersonal relationship, academic, etc. o Impairment: In context of a person’s background and culture Behavior NOT typical in cultural norms Psychological Disorder: psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning that is not a culturally expected response Phobia: persistent fear of an object or situation Abnormal behavior: actions that are not expected and evaluated negatively because they’re different from typical behavior Clinical Description: details of combination of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings of an individual that make up a particular disorder Course = “Pattern” o Chronic – long term (lasting a long time) o Episodic – In episodes (comes and goes) Prognosis – anticipated course (pattern) of a disorder Onset – how the disorder begins o Acute: Suddenly starts (i.e.. Phobia) o Insidious: Gradually develop in a period of time (i.e.. Schizophrenia) Prevalence – number of people displaying a disorder in the total population at any given time 361 Incidence – number of new cases of a disorder appearing during a specific period Etiology – Cause or source of a disorder What is a Scientist-Practitioner Keep up with current developments Evaluate own assessments of treatments for effectiveness Research to produce new information that gives feedback for clinical service Practice treatment delivery and research mutually affects each other Treatment Outcome Research: Comparing the Outcome Efficacy Research: Study in Laboratory/high control environment (ideal) Effectiveness Research: Study application in the real world/low control environment (generalize) Three Traditions: Supernatural Tradition Biological Tradition Psychological Tradition o 1800-1850: Moral Therapy: Psychosocial approach in the 19 century that treats patients in normal environments as possible. o After mid 1800’s: Poor treatment resumed o Dorothea Dix Mental Hygiene Movement - improving standards of care Giving care for those who need care o Psychoanalytic Theory Breuer and Freud Hypnosis training history Discovered the unconscious: part of psychic makeup that is outside our awareness Catharsis: releasing emotional material important factor in psychoanalytic theory Three major Tenets of the Psychoanalytical Model Structure of mind and personality functions sometimes encounter Defense mechanisms (Denial, Displacement, Projection, Rationalization, Reaction Formation, Repression, and Sublimation) – avoid problems Stages of Psychosexual Development contribute to Inner problems Other Contributors to Psychoanalytical Theory Anna Freud – Ego Psychology: abnormal behavior happens Carl Jung – Collective Unconscious: Religious and Spiritual drives Alfred Adler – Inferiority Complex: feeling of being inferior to others while striving for superiority Psychoanalytic Therapy Free Association: technique which explores threatening material repressed into the unconscious. Dream Analysis: method in which the contents of dreams are examined as symbolic of id impulses and intrapsychic conflicts Transference: concept that suggests that clients may look to relate to the therapists as they do to important authority figures. Countertransference: therapists project some of their own personal issues and (positive) feelings to the patients The Psychodynamic Theory: emphasis on the unconscious processes and conflicts but is briefer and more focused on specific problems Focus on affect and the expression of patients’ emotions Explore attempts to prevent topics or slow down progress in therapy Identify patterns in actions, thoughts. Feelings, experiences, and relationships Emphasis on past experiences Focus on interpersonal experiences Consideration for the therapeutic relationship Explore wishes, dreams, and fantasies o Humanistic Theory 361 Abraham Maslow - Self-actualization: we can reach our full potential if we have the freedom to grow Carl Rogers – Client-centered Therapy: method where the client directs the course of discussion, looking for self-discovery and self-responsibility Unconditional Positive Regard: Acceptance by the counselor of the client’s feelings and actions without judgment or condemnation. Empathy: sympathetic understanding of the individual’s view of the world o The Behavioral Model Behavior: learned and influenced by other people and events Pavlov – Classical Conditioning Watson – Operant Conditioning Skinner – Shaping, Reinforcement, & Punishment Behavioral Therapy – Systematic Desensitization: A way to diminish Fear o The Cognitive Model Beck – Cognitive Therapy/Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): changing thoughts and behaviors to improve something they’re having problems with.
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