Biology 213 Week 1 notes
Biology 213 Week 1 notes 70855
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Neha simon on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 70855 at George Mason University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see cell structure and function in Science at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Week 1 Bio Chapter 1 lecture notes Biology: the scientific study of living things (Organisms) Characteristics of living things What are the chemical Made of a common set of chemical components: components of living things? Carbs Fatty acids (makes fat) Nucleic acids (made of nucleotides), Amino acids (combines to form proteins) Consist of one or more cells. They have a metabolism Can convert molecules from their environment into new biological molecules. Body turns carbs into fatty acids. They interact with their environment: Extract energy from our environment. Contains genetic information. Use genetic information to reproduce themselves. Exist in populations that evolve. Self regulate their environment. Sweating. Homeostasis: Selfregulations. Unicellular organisms: a single cell carries out all the functions of life. Multicellular organisms: made of many cells that are specialized for different functions. Earth formed 4.6 to 4.5 billion years ago but it was 600 million years or more before life evolved. What is Homeostasis? Week 1 Bio Chapter 1 lecture notes 1) What did life consist of for the 1 billion years? For the 1 few billion years, life consisted of single cell called prokaryotes. Two type of prokaryotes emerged: bacteria and archaea. 2) What are the 2 types of Some early prokaryotes merged to form eukaryotes. prokaryotes that Some organelles may have come about by endosymbiosis When cells ingested smaller cells. emerged? Mitochondria and chloroplast could have originated when prokaryotes were ingested. How did we get to multicellularity? 3) What made multicellular At some point eukaryotic cells did not separate after division and started organisms? living as colonies. This probably opened the way for cells to specialize, which caused them to increase in size. 2.5 billion years ago photosynthesis changed the nature of life on earth. Early photosynthetic cells were similar to cyanobacteria (prokaryotes). The early earth had no O2, but it began to increase as photosynthetic 4) What changed the nature of life on earth? prokaryotes increased. Organisms that could tolerate O2 proliferated. 5) Why did the O2 production increased? Accumulating O2 led to the formation of ozone layer, which absorbs UV radiation. Organisms began to leave the protection of water to become terrestrial animals. 6) What led to the formation of the ozone layer? 7) Why did organisms leave the protection of water? Week 1 Bio Chapter 1 lecture notes 1) How are organisms Nomenclature: naming species named? Names are binomial Genus and Species. What kinds of organisms are there? 2) What are prokaryotes? Prokaryotes (simple, single celled, no nucleus). What are the 2 types of prokaryotes? Archaea (extremophiles): Live in extreme conditions Bacteria (most bacteria) 3) What are Eukaryotes? Eukaryotes (complex, many cells, nucleated) Protista Fungi Plants Animals 4) What does taxonomy Taxonomy: Defining groups of organisms on shared characteristic do? 1) Kingdom 2) Phylum 3) Class 4) Order 5) Family 6) Genus 7) Species Week 1 Bio Chapter 1 lecture notes What is a Phylogenic tree? Phylogenetic tree: illustrates the evolutionary histories of different groups of organisms. Systematists study the evolution and classification of organisms. Week 1 Bio Chapter 1 lecture notes 1) What is a genome? Genome: the sum of the entire DNA in a cell. DNA: consists of repeating subunits called nucleotides. 2) Difference between Gene: A specific segment of DNA that contains info to make proteins. DNA and gene? All cells of a multicellular organism have the same genome, but different cells have different functions. Different cells are expressing different parts of the genome. 3) Although multicellular a. Like turning on a certain switch for certain functions organisms have the Population: individuals of the same species living together. same genome, what is different? Evolution acts on organisms in a population, it changes the genetic makeup of population through time. Evolution is the unifying factor in biology. Darwin proposed natural selection: Only a small number of populations will survive due to limiting factors (food, shelter, mate). Natural selection leads to adaptations: structural, physiological, or behavioral. As pop become isolated and evolve differences, they are eventually considered different species. > Species that share a recent evolutionary history are more similar 4) When are populations considered different species? Week 1 Bio Chapter 1 lecture notes I. Inductive logic: uses observation or facts to develop a hypothesis. 1) Difference between II. Deductive logic: used to make predictions. inductive and deductive a. An organisms is composed of cells logic? Humans are composed of cells Humans are organisms. III.Controlled experiments: manipulate one or more of factors being tested. IV. Comparative experiments: looks for differences between samples or groups. 2) Difference between How do Biologists investigate life? controlled and comparative I. Distinguishing science and nonscience: experiments? a. Scientific hypotheses must be testable and have the potential of being rejected. b. You can’t test religious or spiritual explanations so it’s not science. 1. Science does not say religion is wrong but it’s not science. 3) What must scientific hypothesis have? Why does biology matter? I. It helps agriculture and increase food productions. a. New strains of crops are produced to resist pests and tolerate droughts. II. Biology is the basis of medical practice. Week 1 Bio Chapter 1 lecture notes Why are evolutionary III. Evolutionary principals help us understand how disease organisms principles important? evolve resistance to our drugs. IV. Biology can inform public policy. V. Biology is important for understanding ecosystems. Week 1 Bio Chapter 1 lecture notes Week 1 Bio Chapter 1 lecture notes
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