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Biology 213 Week 1 notes

by: Neha simon

Biology 213 Week 1 notes 70855

Marketplace > George Mason University > Science > 70855 > Biology 213 Week 1 notes
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These notes are on the study of living things. Chapter 1 Notes
cell structure and function
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Neha simon on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 70855 at George Mason University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see cell structure and function in Science at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Week 1 Bio Chapter 1 lecture notes  Biology: the scientific study of living things (Organisms)  Characteristics of living things  What are the chemical  ­ Made of a common set of chemical components:  components of living  things? ­ Carbs  ­ Fatty acids (makes fat) ­ Nucleic acids (made of nucleotides),  ­ Amino acids (combines to form proteins)       Consist of one or more cells.       They have a metabolism  Can convert molecules from their environment into new biological  molecules.   Body turns carbs into fatty acids.       They interact with their environment:   Extract energy from our environment.       Contains genetic information.       Use genetic information to reproduce themselves.       Exist in populations that evolve.  ­  Self regulate their environment.   Sweating.   Homeostasis: Self­regulations.      ­ Unicellular organisms: a single cell carries out all the functions of life.  ­ Multicellular organisms: made of many cells that are specialized for  different functions.  ­ Earth formed 4.6 to 4.5 billion years ago but it was 600 million years or more  before life evolved.  What is Homeostasis? Week 1 Bio Chapter 1 lecture notes  1) What did life consist of    for the 1  billion years? ­ For the 1  few billion years, life consisted of single cell called prokaryotes.  ­ Two type of  prokaryotes emerged: bacteria and archaea.  2) What are the 2 types of  ­ Some early prokaryotes merged to form eukaryotes.  prokaryotes that   Some organelles may have come about by endosymbiosis ­ When cells ingested smaller cells.  emerged? ­ Mitochondria and chloroplast could have originated when  prokaryotes were ingested.   How did we get to multicellularity? 3) What made multicellular  ­ At some point eukaryotic cells did not separate after division and started  organisms?  living as colonies.  ­ This probably opened the way for cells to specialize, which caused them to  increase in size.  ­ 2.5 billion years ago photosynthesis changed the nature of life on earth.   Early photosynthetic cells were similar to cyanobacteria (prokaryotes).  The early earth had no O2, but it began to increase as photosynthetic  4) What changed the  nature of life on earth? prokaryotes increased.   Organisms that could tolerate O2 proliferated. 5) Why did the O2  production increased?  ­    Accumulating O2 led to the formation of ozone layer, which absorbs UV  radiation.   Organisms began to leave the protection of water to become terrestrial animals.    6) What led to the  formation of the ozone  layer? 7) Why did organisms  leave the protection of  water? Week 1 Bio Chapter 1 lecture notes  1) How are organisms  Nomenclature: naming species  named? ­ Names are binomial  ­ Genus and Species.  What kinds of organisms are there? 2) What are prokaryotes?  ­ Prokaryotes (simple, single celled, no nucleus).  What are the 2 types of  prokaryotes? ­ Archaea (extremophiles): Live in extreme conditions ­ Bacteria (most bacteria) 3) What are Eukaryotes? ­ Eukaryotes (complex, many cells, nucleated)      ­ Protista       ­ Fungi       ­ Plants       ­ Animals 4) What does taxonomy  ­ Taxonomy: Defining groups of organisms on shared characteristic do? 1) Kingdom  2) Phylum  3) Class  4) Order  5) Family  6) Genus  7) Species    Week 1 Bio Chapter 1 lecture notes  What is a Phylogenic tree? ­Phylogenetic tree: illustrates the evolutionary histories of different groups of  organisms.  ­ Systematists study the evolution and classification of organisms.  Week 1 Bio Chapter 1 lecture notes  1) What is a genome?  ­ Genome: the sum of the entire DNA in a cell.  ­ DNA: consists of repeating subunits called nucleotides.  2) Difference between  ­ Gene: A specific segment of DNA that contains info to make proteins.  DNA and gene?  ­ All cells of a multicellular organism have the same genome, but  different cells have different functions.  ­ Different cells are expressing different parts of the genome.  3) Although multicellular     a. Like turning on a certain switch for certain functions organisms have the      Population: individuals of the same species living together.  same genome, what is  different?  ­ Evolution acts on organisms in a population, it changes the genetic  makeup of population through time.  ­ Evolution is the unifying factor in biology.  ­ Darwin proposed natural selection: ­ Only a small number of populations will survive due to limiting factors  (food, shelter, mate).     Natural selection leads to adaptations: structural, physiological, or  behavioral.  ­ As pop become isolated and evolve differences, they are eventually  considered different species.     > Species that share a recent evolutionary history are more similar    4) When are populations  considered different  species?  Week 1 Bio Chapter 1 lecture notes    I. Inductive logic: uses observation or facts to develop a hypothesis.  1) Difference between  II. Deductive logic: used to make predictions.  inductive and deductive  a. An organisms is composed of cells logic? Humans are composed of cells  Humans are organisms.  III.Controlled experiments: manipulate one or more of factors being tested.  IV. Comparative experiments: looks for differences between samples or  groups.  2) Difference between  How do Biologists investigate life?  controlled and  comparative  I. Distinguishing science and non­science: experiments? a. Scientific hypotheses must be testable and have the potential of being rejected.  b. You can’t test religious or spiritual explanations so it’s not  science.  1. Science does not say religion is wrong but it’s not science. 3) What must scientific  hypothesis have? Why does biology matter?  I. It helps agriculture and increase food productions.  a. New strains of crops are produced to resist pests and tolerate  droughts.  II. Biology is the basis of medical practice. Week 1 Bio Chapter 1 lecture notes    Why are evolutionary  III. Evolutionary principals help us understand how disease organisms  principles important? evolve resistance to our drugs.  IV. Biology can inform public policy.  V. Biology is important for understanding ecosystems.          Week 1 Bio Chapter 1 lecture notes  Week 1 Bio Chapter 1 lecture notes 


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