Biology Week 1 Notes! Chp 1 and 2
Biology Week 1 Notes! Chp 1 and 2 Biology 003
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Faith M Elissague on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 003 at Los Angeles Valley College taught by Yousef Harfouche in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Intro Biology in Biology at Los Angeles Valley College.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Week 1 Biology Lecture notes: When I use "Ess Bio, pg #" I am directly taking material from the book. Let me know how you like/ dislike the notes, or how I can improve! Thanks for checking them out!! :) See ya in class!! In Biology, we Scientiﬁcally study life. But what is life? Life is ﬁrst oﬀ organized, and not random. There is a system to everything. For instance cells make up tissues, and tissues make up organs. There are 7 aspects that make up life. (Need to know this for the exam) 1. Life has order 2.Life can regulate: If the environment changes, the living organism can adjust its internal environment. 3. Life grows and develops: Nothing stays a baby its whole life. As humans, we grow, our body changes, and our brains and personality develop. 4. Life possesses energy: Organisms take in energy and use it to perform daily tasks. 5. Life responds to its environment: when a carnivorous Venus ﬂytrap closes its leaves rapidly in response to the environmental stimulus of the ﬂy touching the plant's sensory hairs ( Ess Bio, 8). 6. Life reproduces: Organisms make more of its kind. Never monkeys with crocodiles or lizards with elephants. But elephants with elephants, monkeys with monkeys,crocodiles with crocodiles, and lizards with lizards. 7. Life evolves: In order to survive, organisms transform themselves over time to live better and longer in the environment. • What is the scientiﬁc side of biology, and how do we practice it? We practice scientiﬁc testing everyday. If your TV does not turn on, you observe that something is wrong with it. So you then come up with solutions to try to ﬁx the problem. You say well the TV needs to be plugged into an outlet in order to turn on. So you then test to see if it is plugged in. If it is not, then you plug it in and push the power button to see if it will turn on. If it does,then your hypothesis is proven, if not then you have to ask yourself what other things can be missing to make the TV not turn on, and go back and try to prove that hypothesis. • When you make observations like this, you are conducting the scientiﬁc method. And the terms that we use to describe the process above are: A. Observation B. Hypothesis C. Experimentation D. Conclusion • When we test a hypothesis there is term known as a control. A Control is an item or thing we use to reference back to in order to see if there was a change. • In an experiment, there are two diﬀerent variables. The dependent variable and the independent variable. Dependent variable: a variable (a thing being tested) that is inﬂuenced by outside factors. For example, in an experiment testing whether people who eat McDonald's have diabetes, the people being tested are the dependent variables. Independent variable: a variable that stands alone and that is not inﬂuenced by anything outside itself. So in the same McDonald's experiment, the food that people are eating would be the independent variable. • How is a theory diﬀerent than a hypothesis? ( Important to know for the exam): A theory is a comprehensive explanation supported by abundant evidence, and it is general enough to spin oﬀ many new testable hypotheses. Theories only become widely accepted by scientists IF they are supported by an accumulation of extensive and varied evidence and if they have not been tested wrong otherwise (Ess Bio, 7). It is something that is becoming more of a fact. Examples include: atomic theory, gravitational theory, cell theory, and germ theory. • Diﬀerent levels of life: The chemical, cellular, and energetic foundations of life. The genetics of individuals. The immense diversity and unity of life evolution. The interactions between organisms and their environment. ANSWERS FOR QUESTIONS/SUMMARY AT THE END OF LECTURE SCREEN!!!! AKA these are probably really important to know for the exam!!! ;) 1. Describe the common characteristics of life. Order, regulation, growth and development, energy possessing,response to the environment, reproduction, and evolution. 2. Explain how life has both unity and diversity. Life has unity through the important characteristics which deﬁne life, organisms are composed of cells, and DNA has genetic code. Life has diversity through structure and function. 3. List and describe the steps of the scientiﬁc method; however, recognize that order of steps is ﬂexible. The steps are observation, question, hypothesize, experimentation, and conclusion. (Explanations are in the notes above. 4. Explain the diﬀerent components involved in a proper experimental design, such as treatment, experimental and control group, independent and dependent and controlled variables, replication, and statistics. Treatment: In an experiment, the factor ( also known as the independent variable) is manipulated by the experimenter. Each factor has two or more levels, i.e., diﬀerent values of the factor. Combinations of factor levels are called treatments. Experimental group: the group in an experiment that receives the variable testing. Control group: does not receive the variable testing Independent, dependent, and control are explained in the notes above Replication: the repetition of the set of all the treatment combinations to be compared in an experiment Statistics: tracking causation within the experiment. 5. Interpret data displayed in a graphical format Look at the snail chart you used for the lab. That is a pretty good representation of ready graphs. 6. Describe theory and give examples of scientiﬁc theories Read notes above 7. Describe the diﬀerent levels of scale and themes in the study of life Look in the notes above Is there anything I can help you with?? Please email me at email@example.com :) Chapter 2 Notes: An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical bonds. There are four main elements our bodies are made out of. Of the elements on the periodic table, 25 are essential to humans. But the most important elements to us are: 1. Oxygen 2. Carbon 3. Nitrogen 4. Hydrogen • Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass • Matter is found on earth in three forms: Solid, liquid, and gas. • Mass#: is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons • Atomic #: is the number of protons A proton weighs one dalton. A electron weighs so little it cannot be measured. A neutron weighs 1 dalton. • Elements can combine to form compounds. Compounds are substances that contain 2 or more elements in a ﬁxed ratio. Each atom is made up of one kind of atom.An atom is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of and element ( Ess. Bio, 25). Atoms consist of the electrons, protons, and neutrons. Isotopes: have the same number of protons and electrons as a standard atom of that element but diﬀerent number in neutrons. They are forms of an element that diﬀer in mass. REMEMBER: MASS # is equal to the number of neutrons and (add, plus,+) protons. So when you change the number of neutrons, the mass number changes. There are diﬀerent kinds of isotopes: stable isotope, and radioactive isotope. Stable isotope's nuclei stays intact more or less forever. The radioactive isotope's nucleus decays spontaneously, shedding particles and energy! (SCARY!!) Electronegative bonds shared unequally. Fluorine is the most selﬁsh. Electronegative(loves electrons) and the elements that it includes are Nitrogen, Oxygen, and ﬂuorine(being the most selﬁsh) The amount of electrons in the outer shell determines how an atom will interact with other atoms. The combination of the atoms is called molecules and/or chemical bonding. • There are 3 types of bonds we need to know for this course. 1. Covalent bonding: when two atoms share electrons 2. Ionic bonding: Transfer of electrons, and attraction of oppositely charged ions 3. Hydrogen bonding: Water consists of two hydrogen bonds joined by one oxygen. The electrons are not shared equally in this bonding. The unequal sharing of negatively charged electrons, combined with its V shape, makes water molecule polar. Polar molecule: is one with uneven distribution of charge that creates two poles, one positive pole and the other negative. THiS IS A WEAK CHEMICAL BOND Property of water molecules: They stick together: Cohesion Has large heat capacity: the ability of water to moderate temperature The biological signiﬁcance of ice ﬂoating: I.e., Polar bears living on top of ice, and sea life to live below. Ice is less dense. Water is a great solvent In a water solution, the molecules are in tact. But some of the water molecules break apart into hydrogen ions (H+: acid) and hydroxide ions (OH-, Base). A balance of these 2 highly reactive ions is critical for proper functioning of chemical processes within organisms. (Ess Bio, 31) PH= Scale to describe acidity or basic its of a solution. The scale moves by factors of 10. So the distance between each one is 10^(how far apart the numbers are). Buﬀers work to stabilize ph levels to minimize any change. Example: blood ANSWERS FOR QUESTIONS AT THE END OF THE LECTURE SLIDES: AKA PROBABLY SUPER IMPORTANT FOR EXAM KNOWLEDGE 1. Describe the properties of atoms and subatomic components: Look above in notes 2. List and describe the diﬀerent types of chemical bonds and give real life examples of each Ionic bonds(Look above for description) real life example is sodium chloride or NaCl Covalent bonds: (look above for description) real life example formaldehyde or CH2O Hydrogen bonds: (look for description above) real life example H2O 3. List and describe the life-supporting properties of water Look above for answer 4. Describe PH and how it relates to the acidity and basicity of solutions Look above for answer 5. Describe how acidic conditions aﬀect terrestrial and aquatic environments CO2 goes into the ocean and combines with H2O to make H2CO2 (carbonic acid). It eﬀects extreme acidity on the environment , and things like acid rain and ocean acidiﬁcation occurs because of it.
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