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Class notes for Lecture 2

by: danqisandy

Class notes for Lecture 2

Marketplace > University of Rochester > Psychology (PSYC) > > Class notes for Lecture 2
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About this Document

Notes are taken on the class ppt. As the professor mentioned, she emitted things from the ppt to encourage attendance. If you didn't come to the previous two class, then this ppt is very helpful fo...
Dr. Comer
Class Notes
Psychology, developmental
25 ?




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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by danqisandy on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at University of Rochester taught by Dr. Comer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see PSY171 in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Rochester.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Classical Theories Psychoanalytic, Behaviorist, Cognitive Why Should We Care About Classical Theories? Provide the background for newer theories Learn from previous mistakes These are the theories the general public thinks about when you ask them about psychology! Psychoanalytic Theories Sigmund Freud Viennese physician Very close to his beautiful mother, but had a harsh, critical father Saw rich, white women suffering from “hysteria” Developed his theories from his patients Addicted to Cocaine T opographical Model of the Mind Mind is organized into levels of functioning: Conscious level awareness Preconscious Level You have access to but not currently aware of; can be Unconscious Leveland remembered. Freud’s Contribution Unconscious Level Elements of mind that are actively kept from consciousness (protective mechanism) Repository for images, feelings, and ideas associated with anxiety, fear, and pain Contents can’t be brought to consciousness can only enter awareness in distorted form — dream directly Even though they’re outside awareness, contents of unconscious can have dynamic influence on personality Behaviors are infect driven by those unconscious thoughts. Topographical Model of Mind Psychosexual Theory Humans are driven by powerful biological urges that need to be satisfied Eros: life instinct eating, breath, sex, etc. Thanatos: death instinct fighting, aggression, territoriality, etc. Problem: Society restricts our natural urges, so we internalize them and create psychological problems Victorian society is repressive. For Freud, he argues that people repress those needs and thus then become psychological problems. Three Personality Components All about satisfaction “right now” Id: Only component present at birth All it wants is to satisfy urges immediately Rational, planing according to reality. “Let’s plan when to satisfy me” Ego: Rational, conscious component Still wants to gratify urges, but is in charge of dealing with reality “Is it right?”, “Morally okay?” Superego: Conscience Develops last Personality Development Freud believed that personality formed during the first few years of life divided into psychosexual stages. The first few year is critical for people’s development, and it’s those few years that determined a people’s entire life During these stages the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on pleasure sensitive body areas called erogenous zones. Psychosexual Stages 1. Oral Stage (birth – 1 year) Centers on mouth (sucking, chewing, biting) —Freud argues that it’s because id is Feeding is very important! focused on the month. The main task in Orally fixated personality this stage is weaning on time, or else for 2. Anal Stage (1 – 3 years) rest of the life lead to oral fixation. Centers on the anus Voluntary urination and defecation are important here Toilet training is problem Anal Retentive personality Psychosexual Stages 3. Phallic Stage (3 – 6 years) *most important Centers on genitals Oedipus/Electra complex Incestuous desire for opposite-sex parent Internalize same-sex parents’ sex-roles 4. Latent Stage (6 – 11 years) Not much going on — school work and play 5. Genital Stage (11 – adulthood) Puberty reawakens sexual urges Focus on genitals Evaluation of Freud’s Theory Contributions Criticisms Unconscious thought Not testable (little Contemporary psychologists regards unconscious thought as more of information processing ratheBased on patients traumatic memories. Early experience is (problem of Case study) Too much emphasis on important sex and aggression Emotions 1)better explanations? Development occurs in 2)can’t prove most of his assumptions. stages Inspired others to study development draw interests into the psychology Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development Erik Erikson Neo-Freudian Wandered around Europe trying to decide what to become Started working with Freud Different from Freud: Children are active creatures that adapt to environments Much less emphasis on sex and more emphasis on culture (he argues that culture has a great impact on children’s development.) Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory 8 Life Crises Stages from birth to old age (while Freud stopped at around adolescence) No single stage is more important than another Completion of previous stages influences future stages Early Psychosocial Stages 1. Trust vs. Mistrust (Infancy) The healthiest is being the mean Trust others for basic needs of the trust vs. mistrust scale. 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (2-3 years) Learn to be autonomous (take care of self) 3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 years) If discouraged, stopped try Try to act grown up and be responsiblethings in their life. 4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12 years) Master important social and academic skills Adolescence 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (adolescence) “Who am I?” Occupation, religion, sexuality, etc. COnce established identity, one can truly be an adult. Later Psychosocial Stages 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation & loneliness (20-40 years) Achieve sense of love and companionship with another person 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (40-65 years) Becoming productive in work and family life To produce sth. that feel like you leave sth. for the world. 8. Integrity vs. Despair (old age) Was life meaningful and productive or a disappointment? Praise and Criticism of Erikson’s Theory Praise: Intuitive People are adaPeople can change their future by changing previous states. Great description Criticism: Causes? Why do we go through all the stages?


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