New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Drugs and Individual Behavior Week 3 Class Notes

by: McKenna Keck

Drugs and Individual Behavior Week 3 Class Notes PSYCH 3102

Marketplace > University of Northern Iowa > Psychology > PSYCH 3102 > Drugs and Individual Behavior Week 3 Class Notes
McKenna Keck
GPA 3.71

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover what we went over this week, including the rest of what will be on the first exam.
Drugs and Individual Behavior
Dr. Linda Walsh
Class Notes
Drugs, individual, behavior, tolerance, dependence, neurotransmitters, brain
25 ?




Popular in Drugs and Individual Behavior

Popular in Psychology

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by McKenna Keck on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3102 at University of Northern Iowa taught by Dr. Linda Walsh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Individual Behavior in Psychology at University of Northern Iowa.


Reviews for Drugs and Individual Behavior Week 3 Class Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/09/16
Drugs & Individual Behavior Week 3 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 Continued from Week 2 Notes… I’ve taken this dose of drug before, but time I’m not getting the same effect. ■  Cross­Tolerance    &  Cross­Dependence ● Tolerance to a drug often extends to other (usually  chemically­related) drugs. ● When physical dependence occurs, other  chemically­related drugs can “satisfy” that dependency & prevent withdrawal. ○ May Be Due to Drug to Drug Interactions ■ Drug Interactions: having more than 1 drug in your system can  change the experienced effects ■ The presence of another drug may alter absorption, distribution,  metabolism, elimination, and/or receptor interactions. ■ Some interaction examples: ● Additive (1+1=2) ­ Effects of 2 analgesics in  Excedrin add together ○ Like ibuprofen & aspirin together ● Synergistic (1+1=3) ­ Taking alcohol & another  depressant can lead to more than the sum of their effects (synergism) ○ Like alcohol & sleeping pills  together ● Potentiating (0+1=2) ­ Tagamet, Zantac, birth  control pills, or erythromycin can potentiate (strengthen) sedative effects of  benzodiazepines like Xanax ○ You might not expect it, b/c they’re  such different kinds of drugs, but it happens. ● Antagonistic ­ 1 drug canceling out the  effectiveness of another drug ○ Smoking (tobacco or cannabis) can  decrease the effectiveness of a wide range of medications b/c the liver is  working harder ○ There’s an antidote drug you can  give for someone who overdosed on a pain medication. This interaction  can be live saving. ● Altered Side Effects ­ taking alcohol & aspirin  increases stomach upset Drug Names ● Chemical or structural name ­ describes molecule ○ Usually super long. We won’t use those names. ○ Example: sodium 5­ethyl­5­(1­methylbutyl) barbiturate ● Generic name ­ official, nonproprietary ○ No one owns it. It’s what we call the chemical compound. We’ll use these in  class. ○ Example: sodium pentobarbital ● Brand or trade name ­ owned by a company ○ Might be the way you know the drug. We’ll use these. ○ Example: Nembutal ● Street names ○ Users might use these names. Interesting, but vary a lot from place to place, &  time to time, & aren’t very constant. We won’t really use these. ○ Example: bluebirds ● Generic v. Brand Name Drugs ○ Are generics as good? ■ By law, the active ingredients must be chemically & biologically  equivalent. ● They have the be the same chemical & get into your system the same way. ■ We don’t know for sure if they’ll always be clinically equivalent… ● Would you notice the same effect if you take the  generic v. the brand name? ○ Remember, placebo effect can come  into play…  ○ Will generic availability decrease drug development research? Are generic  substitutions fair to brand­name companies? States vary in their laws about substitution. ■ If drug companies don’t make enough money are they going to  continue research & development on their drug? We need to have these drugs available to consumers…  ■ Sometime when they’re trying to encourage drug development,  they offer more control to the brand name companies. When we need drugs to be more  reasonably priced, generics come into play. Nervous System Review for Understanding Psychoactive Drugs ● Central Nervous System (CNS) ○ Brain ○ Spinal Cord ● Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) ­ all the nerves that are outside the brain & spinal cord.  Virtually every drug will have some kind of effect on the peripheral nervous system ○ In 2 halves ■ Somatic: motor & sensory nerves (help us move & sense things).  Not many drugs will affect those nerves, except cocaine being applied topically acts as an anesthetic. ■ Autonomic: involuntary or unconscious nerves, to regulate the  functioning of organs (like, you don’t have to think about your heart beating for it to  beat) ● In 2 halves ○ Sympathetic: “Fight or Flight”  Nerves that turn on a lot of arousing body reactions so you can fight or  flee. Prepares you for any situation where your body will be more active. ○ Parasympathetic: Most active when  you’re just chillin’. Digesting, keeping mouth wet, mostly pretty calm  maintenance functions. Keeps you sitting upright in your chair. Calming  as opposed to arousing. ○ All day long we keep switching  between sympathetic & parasympathetic activation of the PNS. ● Most drugs affect the autonomic nervous system.  Like caffeine making your heart rate speed up. We call these the side effects  often. ● Parts of the Brain Might be useful to print slide of labeled brain for studying & labeling. ○ Medulla: Life­sustaining & life­protecting reflexes. Overdose death usually due to drug action in the medulla, interfering with regulation of breathing or cardiovascular function. ■ Sustaining… ● Heart beating, breathing ■ Protecting…  ● Vomiting, gagging ○ Cerebellum: Motor coordination & balance. Drug action on cerebellum may cause slurring, stumbling, loss of balance. ■ Alcohol is a classic example of a drug depressing the function of  the cerebellum. ○ Hypothalamus: Drug action in hypothalamus affects appetite, hormone levels,  sexual function, autonomic & instinctive emotional responses. ■ Some drugs affect sexual functioning, appetite, etc. ○ Reticular Formation: Arouses brain for normal waking & consciousness.  Sometimes called reticular activating system. Sends messages to the upper parts of the brain. ■ Stimulants will increase wakefulness, depressants will make you  sleepy or fully unconscious. ○ The Limbic System: Emotional Control System. Recognizing emotions, showing  emotions, feeling emotions, & has an effect on memory. ■ Fornix ■ Thalamus ■ Hypothalamus ■ Amygdala ■ Mamillary Body ■ Hippocampus ○ Dopamine Pleasure/Reward System: Bundle of dopamine (DA) neurons from  midbrain through hypothalamus & nucleus accumbens, then on to cortex & limbic system ■ It’s active when you do something “good for your survival” ■ We’ve found lots of drugs or substances that activate the reward  system, so it makes you want to keep doing it. ■ Nucleus Accumbens: one of the key hubs of this system ○ Basal Ganglia or Extrapyramidal Motor System: initiating voluntary movements  & keeping undesired movements in check. Involved in initiating voluntary action & controlling  unwanted movements that might interfere with what we want to do. ○ Cortex: the site of all of our higher functions. Drug action here affects judgment  & reasoning, self­control, sensation/perception, contact with reality. ■ Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, & Occipital Lobes ○ Neuron: sends, processes, & receives messages in the brain ■ Nucleus ■ Dendrite: message receiving part of a neuron ■ Cell Body: integrates all those individual messages coming into  dendrites. Sometimes called soma. ■ Terminal Buttons: Tips of the axon branch. Takes you to the  synapse ■ Axon: single outgoing branch. Message sending part. ■ Myelin Sheath ■ Synapse: the gap between terminal buttons & the next dendrites. ● Presynaptic terminal (terminal button): the terminal  that’s sending the message ● Synaptic vesicle containing neurotransmitter  (message) ● Transmitter is released from vesicles & diffuses  across the synapse ● Postsynaptic Terminal: the neuron receiving the  message ○ Transmitters will only fit into the  receptors made to receive them. ■ Eliminating the Neurotransmitter…  ● Transmitter must be removed from synapse after its  release (to prepare for the next messag). ● Most common way… Most neurotransmitters are  recycled through a process called “reuptake” ­ transported back into axon ending  (so the molecules can used again later). ● Less common way…  An enzyme in the synapse  breaks down transmitter into inactive components. ■ Postsynaptic Receptor Specificity ● Each transmitter binds only to its receptors, but  there are multiple types of receptors for each. ○ This is complicated, b/c some drugs  only affect certain types of receptors…  ● Drugs may increase or decrease the synaptic  function of neurotransmitters. ● The “Big Seven” (see Table 3.1) (Best Known Neurotransmitters) Need to know ○ Acetylcholine (ACh) ■ Neurons using ACh = cholinergic neurons ■ Found in ● Nerves to skeletal muscles ○ You would be totally paralyzed  without them ● Parasympathetic NS ● Learning & memory areas of brain ■ Some drugs increase ACh ■ Others (anticholinergics) block its action ○ Norepinephrine (NE) ■ Found in ● Sympathetic NS ● Brain areas involved in appetite, arousal, mood ■ Some drugs activate NE receptors (sympathomimetics) ■ Others block NE receptors ■ Very close chemical relative to DA. ○ Dopamine (DA) ○ Serotonin or 5­Hydroxytryptamine (5HT) ■ Found in ● Sleep & pain suppression areas of brain ● In limbic system (mood) ● In sensory processing areas (vision, hearing, touch,  etc) ■ Several Drugs increase 5HT (antidepressants) ■ 5HT blockers are used to decrease nausea (like for chemo) ○ GABA ■ Best known inhibitory transmitter (when it crosses the synapse, it  tells the next neuron to stop firing, or to diminish firing) ■ If you are born with not enough GABA, you may suffer from  seizures, anxiety, etc. b/c of excessive neuronal activity. ■ Widely known in the CNS ■ It’s an amino acid type transmitter. ○ Endorphin ■ Family of transmitters which decrease pain perception & elevate  mood. ■ Narcotic analgesic drugs (like our pain killers) act on endorphin  receptors ○ Glutamate (newest addition): amino acid ■ Amino acid which acts as an excitatory transmitter almost  everywhere in the CNS (kind of like the opposite of GABA. It excites the next neuron  instead of calming it down). ■ PCP blocks some glutamate receptors. Thursday, September 8, 2016 Some notes from today integrated into notes from Tuesday, above, then continued from above. ○ Ways drugs may affect neurons (Part of Drug Action) ■ Drugs may affect any of the normal neuron processes ● Production of transmitter ● Storage of the transmitter in vesicles ● Release of transmitter ● Binding & action of transmitter at receptor sites ● Elimination of transmitter by reuptake or enzymatic breakdown ■ Two Broad Categories ● AGONIST: a drug that triggers or increases the  usual synaptic effects of a transmitter ○ Example: a drug which fits  postsynaptic receptor sites & MIMICS action of transmitter ● ANTAGONIST: a drug prevents or decreases the  usual synaptic effects of a transmitter ○ Example: A drug which fits receptor  site by doesn’t trigger a response. This drug is a blocker. ● Drug Actions ○ AGONIST examples: ■ Narcotic pain  relievers fit & activate opiate receptors mimicking the action of  normal endorphins. ■ Nicotine fits into &  stimulates ACh receptor sites, arousing the cortex like ACh. ○ ANTAGONIST examples: ■ Haldol blocks DA  receptors in schizophrenic people. ■ Naloxone blocks  opiate receptors (it’s the antidote for a narcotic overdose). Your  own endorphin effects are also blocked while it’s in your system. *Some lines of notes copied directly from slides in order to maintain testing accuracy. Most is of the lecture &  discussion, not found on slides. Likely on Exam! ­ it was asked in class as an extra credit quiz question Vocab


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.