Chem 105a Week 3 notes
Chem 105a Week 3 notes CHEM 105A
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Morrissey on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 105A at University of Southern California taught by Thomas Michael Bertolini in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Southern California.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
● Naming Acids ○ What are acids? ■ Substances that ionize (separate into charged particles) in water to produce H+ ions that act as protons ■ Aqueous (aq) means that the substance is dissolved in water ■ Note that just because something is dissolved, that does not mean that it is is ionized-- for example, sugar can be aqueous, but it does not form ions ○ We name acids depending on whether or not the anion, or the negatively charged ion, contains oxygen ■ If it does NOT contain oxygen ● Hydro(anion root)ic acid ● HBr= Hydrobromic ccid ● HF=Hydrofluoric acid ● HCl=Hydrochloric acid ■ If it DOES contain oxygen (polyatomic Ions) it is called an oxyacid ● ATE-IC / ITE-OUS ● If the anion ends in -ate, the acid’s name ends in -ic ○ H3PO4=phosphoric acid ○ HNO3=nitric acid ○ H2SO4=sulfuric acid ● If the anion ends in -ite, the acid ends in -ous ○ H3PO3=phosphoro us acid ○ HNO2=nitrous acid ○ H2SO3=sulfurous acid ● Molar Mass ○ The mass of one mole of a specific compound (g/mol) ○ The sum of the atomic masses ■ H2O: 2(1.01 g/mol)+ 1(16.00 g/mol) = 18.02 g/mol ● Mass percent mass of element in one mole of the compound ○ molar mass of the compound ○ Used to describe the composition of a compound ● Formulas ○ Empirical Formula ■ The simplest formula with correct “reduced” ratio of atoms ○ Molecular Formula ■ Denotes the actual number of atoms of elements in each molecule ○ (Empirical Formula)(N) = Molecular Formula, where N is a positive integer ○ All ionic formulas are empirical ■ NaF, CaF2 ● Combustion Analysis ○ Mass percent is determined experimentally by combustion analysis ○ A pure compound sample is weighed, heated using O2, breaking bonds and causing the sample to form oxides which are then weighed ■ Carbon becomes carbon dioxide ■ Hydrogen becomes Dihydrogen monoxide (water) ■ Sulfur becomes sulfur trioxide ■ Nitrogen becomes nitrogen dioxide ● Chemical Equations ○ Balanced chemical equations can tell you ■ Reactants ■ Products ■ Physical states of each ■ Number of molecules ■ Number of moles ■ Mass ○ Equations must be balanced in order to account for the Law of Conservation of Mass ○ The formulas never change, only the amount of compounds ■ Only change the “coefficient” of each compound, NOT the ratio of elements within the compound ○ Tips ■ Make a chart of each element and the total amount on each side ■ Work with complex compounds first and then deal with single elements or simpler compounds last ■ Keep polyatomic ions together if possible ● IE if there is an acetate ion on each side, consider the ion as a single term instead of Hydrogen, Carbon and Oxygen
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