Bio 3030 Week 3 Notes
Bio 3030 Week 3 Notes Biol 3030
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aurora Moberly on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 3030 at Southern Utah University taught by Dr. Rachel Bolus in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Ecology in Biology at Southern Utah University.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Test 1: 9/23 BIO 3030 Chapter 1: Intro to Ecology Ecology: Whole science of the relations of the organism to its surrounding outside world; The study of how organisms affect and are affected by other organisms and their environment; The study of interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms Ecologists use three main tools: 1. Observation 2. Experiment 3. Models: Abstract version of the world that we can use to predict future events Environmental Science: Interdisciplinary field that includes the study of natural sciences and social sciences Natural systems do not necessarily return to their original state after a disturbance Seemingly random perturbations often play an important role in nature Ecological Maxims: 1. You can never do just one thing 2. Everything goes somewhere 3. No population can increase in size forever 4. There is no free lunch: An organisms energy and resources are finite and increasing inputs into one function results in a tradeoff in which there is a loss for other functions 5. Evolution matters 6. Time matters 7. Space matters 8. Life would be impossible without species interactions Ecologists must select an appropriate scale of time, measurements, ect to conduct their research in Levels of Biological Organization: Individuals, populations, communities, ecosystems, landscapes, entire biosphere Population: A group of individuals of a single species that live in a particular area and interact with one another Community: An association of interacting populations of different species that live in the same area Biotic: Living components of a natural system Abiotic: Physical environment of a natural system Ecosystem: Community of organisms plus the physical environment in which they live Adaptation: A feature of an organism that improves its ability to survive or reproduce in its environment Producer: An organism that uses energy from an external source (ie sun) to produce its own food without having to eat other organisms or their remains Consumer: An organism that obtains energy by eating other organisms or their remains Net Primary Production (NPP): The amount of energy per unit of time that producers fix by photosynthesis or other means minus the amount they use in cellular respiration Each unit of energy captured by producers is eventually lost from the ecosystem as metabolic heat and as a result energy moves through ecosystems in a single direction only (no recycling) Nutrient Cycle: The cyclic movement of a nutrient between organisms and the physical environment Landscapes: Areas that vary substantially from one place to another and typically include multiple ecosystems Biosphere: All living organisms on Earth plus the environments that they live in; Highest level of biological organization Evolution: A change in genetic characteristics of a population over time; Descent with modification; The process by which organisms gradually accumulate differences from their ancestors Climate Change: Directional climate change that occurs over three decades or longer Ecological Toolkit: 1. Replicate each treatment 2. Assign treatments at random 3. Analyze the results using statistical methods Chapter 23: Conservation Biology Test 1: 9/23 BIO 3030 Conservation Biology: An integrative discipline that applies the principles of ecology to the protection of biodiversity; The scientific study of phenomena that affect the maintenance, loss and restoration of biodiversity The Sixth Major Extinction: Current extinction rates are 1,000 times higher than natural background rates of extinction and future rates are likely to be 10,000 times higher Extinction Vortex: A cyclic chain of events ensue and an already small population drops even further in size thereby becoming even more vulnerable to genetic, demographic and environmental changes Taxonomic Homogenization: The worldwide reduction of biodiversity resulting from the spread of nonnative and native generalists coupled with declining abundances and distributions of native specialists and endemics Primary threats to biodiversity are habitat loss, invasive species, overexploitation, pollution, disease, climate change The most important threats are habitat degradation, fragmentation and loss Habitat Loss: Outright conversion of a habitat to another use Habitat Fragmentation: The breakup of a oncecontinuous habitat into a series of habitat patches amid a humandominated landscape Habitat Degradation: Changes that reduce the quality of the habitat for many species Invasive Species: Nonnative, introduced species that sustain growing populations and have large effects on communities Anthropogenic Allee Effect: When a threatened species has monetary value their increasing economic value can lead to more aggressive search and collection missions Population Viability Analysis (PVA): Allows ecologists to assess extinction risks and evaluate management options for populations of rare or threatened species; Most widely used for projecting the potential future status of populations Ex Situ Conservation: The endangered species is removed from their habitat and put under human care Endangered Species Act (1973) was passed to provide a means whereby the ecosystems on which endangered and threatened species depend on may be conserved and to provide a program for the conservation of these species U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service are charged with listing federally threatened and endangered species, identifying critical habitat for each species, drafting recovery plans and carrying out actions necessary to increase abundances to target numbers Surrogate Species: One species’ conservation will serve to protect other species with overlapping habitat requirements Flagship Species: Surrogate species that help garner public support for a conservation project Umbrella Species: Surrogate species that is selected with the assumption that protection of their habitat will serve as an umbrella to protect many other species with similar habitat requirements; Typically species with large area requirements Focal Species: Several species that are selected for their different ecological requirements or susceptibility to different threats Genetic analyses have been used to understand and manage genetic diversity within rare species as well as in forensic analyses of illegally harvested organisms Biodiversity is important to humans because we rely on natural resource and ecosystem services that depend on the integrity of natural communities and ecosystems Chapter 24 Landscape Ecology and Ecosystem Management Landscape Ecology: Sub discipline of ecology that examines spatial patterns and their relationship to ecological processes Landscape: An area in which at least one element is spatially heterogeneous (varies from one place to another) Can be heterogeneous either in what they are composed of or the way their elements are arranged Mosaic: Pattern of heterogeneous elements that make up a landscape Often include multiple ecosystems There is a biotic flow between habitat patches in the mosaic as individuals or gametes move between them; For this flow to occur there needs to be habitat connectivity or the surrounding habitat (matrix) must be of a type that allows dispersal Landscape Composition: The kinds of elements or patches in a landscape as well as how much of each kind is present Landscape Structure: The physical configuration of the different elements that compose the landscape Scale: The spatial or temporal dimension of an object or process, is characterized by both grain and extent Grain: The size of the smallest homogeneous unit of study, determines the resolution at which we view the landscape Extent: The area or time period encompassed by a study Test 1: 9/23 BIO 3030 Edge Effects: Abiotic and biotic changes that are associated with habitat boundaries Core Natural Areas: Areas where the conservation of biodiversity and ecological integrity take precedence over other values Biological Reserves: Smaller reserves that have been established with the conservation of a single species or ecological community as the main objective Buffer Zones: Large areas with less stringent controls on land use and partially compatible with many species resource requirements Ecosystem Management: A way to expand the scope of management to include protection of all native species ecosystems while focusing on the sustainability of the whole system Adaptive Management: Once a new policy is implemented the ecosystem is monitored to gauge whether that action brings about the desire result, management actions are seen as experiments and future management decisions are determined by the outcome of present decisions Chapter 6: Evolution Evolution: A process of descent with modification; Changes over time in the frequencies of different alleles in a population Heritable Trait: A trait that you get genetically from your parents Natural Selection: The process by which individuals with certain heritable characteristics survive and reproduce more successfully than other individuals because of those characteristics Individuals themselves do not evolve, the population as a whole moves towards favorable traits causing the population to evolve Phenotype: Individuals observable characteristics Mutation: A change in the DNA of a gene; Critical to evolution because it brings about new alleles Recombination: The production of offspring that have combinations of alleles that differ from those in either of their parents Directional Selection: Occurs when individuals with one extreme of a heritable phenotypic trait are favored over other individuals Stabilizing Selection: Individuals with an intermediate phenotype are favored Disruptive Selection: Individuals with a phenotype at either extreme are favored Fixation: An allele that occurs in a population at a frequency of 100% Genetic Drift: Chance events affect which alleles are passed from one generation to the next 1. Genetic drift can cause allele frequencies to fluctuate randomly in small populations over time causing some alleles to disappear or to reach fixation 2. Genetic drift reduces the genetic variation of the population 3. Genetic drift can increase the frequency of harmful allele 4. Genetic drift can increase genetic difference between populations Gene Flow: Occurs when alleles are transferred from one population to another via the movement of individuals or gametes 1. Gene flow causes population to be more similar to one another genetically 2. Gene flow can introduce new alleles into a population Can limit local adaptation Natural selection is the only evolutionary mechanism that consistently causes adaptive evolution Adaptive Evolution: A process of change in which traits that confer survival or reproductive advantages tend to increase in frequency over time Clines: Patterns of change in a characteristic of an organism over a geographic region Constraints on adaptive evolution: 1. Lack of genetic variation 2. Evolutionary history 3. Ecological tradeoffs (organisms ability to do one function reduces its ability to perform another) Longterm patterns of evolution are shaped by processes such as speciation, mass extinction and adaptive radiation Evolutionary Tree: A branching diagram that represents the evolutionary history of a group of organisms Speciation: The process by which one species splits into two or more species Most commonly occurs when a barrier prevents gene flow from one population to another Can also occur when two different species breed and the hybrid offspring survives and thrives Mass Extinction: Large proportions of Earth’s species were driven to extinction worldwide in a relatively short time, five have been known to happen Test 1: 9/23 BIO 3030 Adaptive Radiation: An event in which a group of organisms gives rise to many new species that expand into new habitats or new ecological roles in a relatively short time Chapter 2: The Physical Environment Weather refers to the current conditions of temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind and cloud cover Climate: The longterm average weather at a given location The climate system is driven by the balance between energy grains from solar radiation, reradiation by the atmosphere and energy losses due to infrared radiations from Earth’s surface, latent heat flux, sensible heat flex Climate is the most fundamental component of the physical environment The physical environment is the ultimate determinant of where organisms can live, the resources available to them, rate at which their populations can grow Latent Heat Flux: Heat loss due to evaporation Sensible Heat Flux: Energy transfer from the warm air immediately above Earths surface to the cooler atmosphere by convection and conduction Greenhouse Gases: Gases in the atmosphere that absorb and reradiate infrared radiation; H O, CO 2 CH , 2 O 4 2 Latitudinal differences in the intensity of solar radiation at Earth’s surface establish atmospheric circulation cells Coriolis Effect and the difference in heat capacity between the oceans and the continents act on atmospheric circulation cells to determine the pattern of prevailing winds at Earth’s surface Coriolis Effect: The apparent defection of air or water currents when viewed from a rotating reference point such as Earths surface Ocean currents are driven by surface winds, differences in water temperature, salinity Winds and ocean currents transfer energy from the tropics to higher latitudes Uplift: Warm air is less dense than cool air so as long as a pocket of air remains warmer than the surrounding air it will rise Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure exerted on the surface due to the mass of the atmosphere above it As warm air rises higher it expands, cooling the air; Cool air can’t hold as much water vapor as warm so the air continues to rise and cool the water vapor contained within it begins to condense into droplets and form clouds Subsidence: A downward movement of air in the atmosphere leading to the development of a highpressure cell The highpressure cell inhibits the formation of clouds, deserts are found at latitudes influenced by subsidence Hadley Cell: A largescale pattern of atmospheric circulation in each hemisphere caused by the tropical uplift of air Polar Cell: Atmospheric circulation cells that are formed above the north and south poles Ferrell Cell: Located inbetween the Hadley and polar cells Three cells establish the major climate zones on earth: Tropical Zone (Equator), Temperate zones (Inbetween), Polar zones (North) Atmospheric circulation cells create surface wind patterns Winds flow from high pressure to low pressure Prevailing Winds: Consistent patterns of air movement Ocean currents are driven by surface winds and are therefore similar in pattern to prevailing winds Upwelling: Deep ocean water rises to the surface; Causes nutrients to move back to the photic zone Global temperature patterns are determined by latitudinal variation in solar radiation, oceanic circulation patters, distribution of continents Temperature decreases as elevation increases Global patterns of terrestrial precipitation are determined by atmospheric circulation cells, semipermanent pressure cells Lapse Rate: The decrease in temperature with increasing height above the surface Seasonal variation in temperature is greater in the middle of a continent than on the coast because ocean water has a higher heat capacity than land Mountains force air masses passing over them to rise and drop most of their moisture as precipitation resulting in moister environments on windward slopes and drier environments on leeward slopes Vegetation influences regional climates through its effects on energy exchange through albedo, evapotranspiration, surface winds Maritime Climate: The climate typical of coastal terrestrial regions that are influenced by an adjacent ocean, characterized by low daily and season variation in temperature Continental Climate: The climate typical of terrestrial areas in the middle of large continental landmasses at high latitudes characterized by high variation in seasonal temperatures Test 1: 9/23 BIO 3030 RainShadow Effect: The effect a mountain range has on regional climate by forcing moving air upward, causing it to cool and release precipitation on the windward slopes, resulting in lower levels of precipitation and soil moisture on the leeward slope Albedo: Amount of solar radiation that a surface reflects; Influenced by the presence and type of vegetation as well as by soil and topography Large mountain chains (cordilleras) can act to channel the movement of air masses A rough surface allows greater transfer of energy to the atmosphere by wind than a smooth surface because vegetation disrupts air flow Transpiration: Evaporation of water from inside a plant via its leaves Evapotranspiration: The sum of water loss by transpiration and by evaporation The tilt of Earth’s axis as to it orbits the sun causes seasonal temperature changes in temperate, polar regions and in precipitation in tropical regions Temperatureinduced differences in water density result in nonmixing layers of water in oceans and lakes In temperatezone lakes these layers break down in fall and spring allowing for movement of oxygen and nutrients Variations in climate over years to decades are caused by cyclic changes in atmospheric pressure cells Longterm climate cycles over hundreds and thousands of years are associated with changes in the shape of Earth’s orbit, angle of tilt of its axis, Earth’s orientation relative to other celestial bodies Intertropical Convergence Zone: The zone of maximum solar radiation, atmospheric uplift and precipitation within the tropical zone Stratification: Layering of water in oceans and lakes due to differences in water temperature and density with depth Determines the movement of nutrients and oxygen Epilimnion: The warm surface layer of water in a lake, lying above the thermocline, that forms during the summer in some lakes of temperature and polar regions Thermocline: The zone of rapid temperature change in a lake beneath the epilimnion and above the hypolimnion Hypolimnion: The densest, coldest water layer in a lake, lying below the thermocline Turnover: The mixing of the entire water column in a stratified lake when all the layers of water reach the same temperature and density El Nino Southern Oscillation: An oscillation of pressure cells and sea surface temperatures in the equatorial Pacific Ocean that causes widespread climatic variation and changes in upwelling currents North Atlantic Oscillation: An oscillation in atmospheric pressures and ocean currents in the North Atlantic Ocean that affects climatic variation in Europe in northern Asia, and on the east coast of North America Pacific Decadal Oscillation: A longterm oscillation in sea surface temperatures and atmospheric pressures in the North Pacific Ocean that has widespread climatic effects The salinity of Earth’s waters, including water in soils, is determined by the balance between inputs of salts and gains and losses of water The pH of soils and surface waters is determined by inputs of salts from the breakdown of rock minerals, organic acids from plants and acidic pollutants Oxygen concentrations are stable in most terrestrial ecosystems but oxygen availability decreases as elevation increases Concentrations of oxygen in aquatic ecosystems are low where its consumption by organisms exceeds its slow rate of diffusion into water Milankovitch Cycles: Cycles of regular change over thousands of years in the shape of Earth’s orbit, in the angle of tilt of its axis, and in its orientation toward other celestial bodies that change the intensity of solar radiation received by Earth
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