New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

POSC Lecture Week of 9/6-9/8

by: Adrianna Robakowski

POSC Lecture Week of 9/6-9/8 JOUR 201

Adrianna Robakowski

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

POSC Lecture Week of 9/6-9/8 with Professor Renteln
Culture of Journalism: Past, Present and Future
Roberto Suro
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Culture of Journalism: Past, Present and Future

Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adrianna Robakowski on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JOUR 201 at University of Southern California taught by Roberto Suro in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Culture of Journalism: Past, Present and Future in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Southern California.

Similar to JOUR 201 at USC

Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications


Reviews for POSC Lecture Week of 9/6-9/8


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/10/16
LECTURE 9/6    Law Schools  ­ Socialization of lawyers  ­ Experience of legal education pretty much the same as Harvard developed the  model in the early 20th century  ­ Wasn’t necessary to go to law school in the old days, people just had  apprenticeships  ­ Centrality of law schools as path to power  ­ Being a lawyer is common in American political system, but not so much in other  legal systems  ­ Set up law schools to upgrade the legal profession  ­ Make it seem more rigorous  ­ Get rid of people's negative opinions    Models  ­ Legal apprenticeships versus three year graduate programs = United States  ­ Clerk for judge  ­ Barrister v. Solicitor = the lawyer that appears in court (prestigious) v. the lawyer  that does the background work (better paid)  ­ Stratified Bar System  ­ Reflects conflict over practical versus theoretical studies  ­ What should the emphasis be ???  ­ Law as liberal arts versus law as a separate field    Early Law Schools  ­ Litchfield School of Law  ­ First law school in the U.S.  ­ Connecticut  ­ Only lasted for a decade but produced some of the best lawyers  ­ 2 Vice Presidents, 3 Supreme Court Justices, 34 Senators, 6 cabinet  members, 101 members of the House of Representatives, etc.  ­ Closed in 1833  ­ Tried to elevate legal analysis  ­ Princeton and Maryland both had failed law schools  ­ Princeton still doesn’t have a law school  ­ Columbia School of Jurisprudence    Harvard Law School ­ SETS THE STANDARD  ­ Chief Justice Isaac Parker (Mass.)  ­ Established formally in 1817  ­ Dean Christopher Columbus Langdell  ­ Various reforms ­ 3 years for postgrad degree  ­ Establish 1st and 2nd year curricula  ­ Private vs. Public law / Criminal vs. Civil law  ­ Legal writing and research  ­ Civil procedure = how courts function  ­ Moot court = argue a topic in a fake court  ­ 1st year = Contracts, Torts, Property  ­ Case method = learn about the law through appellate court cases  ­ Distorted view of legal systems  ­ “Great cases”  ­ Women not allowed at Harvard until 1950’s, and even then still not very  welcomed  ­ Promoted new type of instructor, e.g. Ames  ­ Young theoreticians (instead of local practitioners and judges)  ­ People who hadn’t been “tainted” by practicing law  ­ Langdell thought case method was so self explanatory that  experience wasn’t necessary to teach it    [ratio decidendi = reason for the decision]  ­ “We hold” , “in our view”  ­ 1 paragraph that is the precedent  [obiter dicta = other words]  ­ Part of the decision/case that isn’t binding    EXAMS  ­ Grade based entirely on final  ­ 3 hour in class exam  ­ Test comprised of “issue spotting” questions  ­ Issue, ruling, analysis and conclusion (IRAC)  ­ Black letter law, the rule of law  ­ Papers instead in 2nd and 3rd year courses  ­ Importance of study groups and outlines for preparation    SOCRATIC METHOD  ­ Cold call  ­ You can pass it to the next person, but people WILL hate you  ­ Need to recite facts of cases and get grilled on the questions    Criticisms of Law School and Education  ­ Emphasis on recruitment interferes with studies   ­ Case method is narrow, uncreative and constrained  ­ Case books are ahistorical in approach  ­ Pedagogy as mind control  ­ “Hot cases” as illustration  ­ A case that goes the way you wouldn’t expect due to morality issues, but  the law makes it go that way  ­ Sympathetic plaintiff  ­ Lack of social science  ­ Interdisciplinary programs: Berkeley, Wisconsin, Yale (Policy Studies)  ­ DUNCAN KENNEDY ON THE MIDTERM    Discrimination  ­ Portia Law School = named after a woman who disguised herself as a male  lawyer  ­ Oberlin ­ admitted blacks in 1839  ­ Inadequate attention to public interest law  ­ Student loans influences career choices  ­ Some law schools have loan forgiveness programs if you go into public  interest law  ­ Emphasis on corporate law  ­ Lack of social responsibility    INNOVATIONS  ­ International law as required 1st year subject = Harvard, Michigan. Florida A+M  ­ Reduce law school to two years  ­ Make law an undergrad degree  ­ Require pro bono service for students and practicing attorneys  ­ Paid year of leave before joining firms  [What should be added???]  ­ How to draft a new law  ­ “Cultural competency”  ­ International law  ­ Social science  ­ Trial advocacy  ­ Expertise in language (legal language) of other countries  LLM = Law Masters  ­ Specialized training    ACCESS TO JUSTICE: the right to counsel  Sixth Amendment Right to Counsel:  ­ The 6th Amendment provides that “in all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall  enjoy the have assistance of counsel of his defense”  ­ The importance of the 6th amendment  ­ The essence of due process  ­ Having one’s day in court = fundamental human right    Pro se = people going into court by themselves  ­ Disadvantage  ­ People with legal training shirking responsibilities ???  ­ Gideon case established people shouldn’t be expected to do it on their own    Incorporated rights = rights that apply to federal as well as state v. partial    [International courts have right to counsel]  Historical Overview:  ­ Powell v. Alabama (1932) ­ capita crimes  ­ Scottsboro cases, African American boys killed for “looking” at a white  woman  ­ 1 day trial  ­ No lawyer but judge said they had the “full bar” to defend them  ­ Supreme Court held that they were denied their right to due  process  ­ 14th Amendment (whether requested or not, defendant  should be given counsel)  ­ Betts v. Brady (1942)  ­ 6th amendment did NOT apply to state trials   ­ Lack of appointed counsel was “not unfair”  ­ Gideon v. Wainwright  ­ Amicus briefs ­ written by someone not involved in the case but cares  enough about the outcome to want to influence it  ­ Not supposed to, but did, overrule the precedent in Betts v. Brady    U of A said they would take the GRE instead of the LSAT!!!    LECTURE 9/8    Gideon gave the right to counsel for felonies (more than 1 year in prison)    Implications of Gideon  ­ Extended to misdemeanors later  ­ Argersinger v. Hamlin (1972)  ­ Indigent defendants charged with misdemeanors facing a  possible jail sentence  ­ Limits on the right to counsel  ­ Not for criminal matters  ­ Not for civil matters (divorce, custody, eviction)  ­ In Europe, there is a right to counsel for civil matters  ­ Don’t get funding for expert witnesses   ­ Some will do it (pro bono), some not  ­ Ake v. Oklahoma (1985)    (California Appellate Project ­ people who do appeals because it is not in  the Constitution)    ­ Would Gideon be applied r ​ etroactively o ​ r​ rospectively  ­ Prospectively was the final decisions  ­ Retroactively would be too cumbersome    [Efficiency v. Fairness]  ­ Major problem in our legal system    EXAMPLES  ­ Sleeping Lawyer: Burdine v Texas  ­ Burdine murdered his roommate  ­ Lawyer slept for much of the trial  ­ Officials argued that the sleeping lawyer was not enough, that  he had to prove it prejudiced the actual outcome  ­ Failure to note cultural differences: Siripongs v. Calderon  ­ Robbed a store, didn’t pull the trigger on the gun, wouldn’t give  up his accomplice  ­ “Boon” (goodness), “baap” (sin), and “khwaan”  ­ Thai concept of shame, if a Thai does something bad,  they feel as if they must compensate with goodness  ­ Demeanor of defendant  ­ Didn’t show emotion  ­ American jury sees this as a lack of remorse  ­ Defendant was brought up in a society where you aren’t  supposed to show emotion  ­ Lawyer had also never had a murder case  ­ Lawyer never went to Thailand   ­ Defendant was raised in his uncle’s brothel,  sexually abused, and his mother sat in on the trial  but was never called to testify about any of this)  ­ Siripongs was an ex buddhist priest  ­ Taught many inmates how to read  ­ Made art to pay for his defense  ­ Warden of San Quentin and the families of the victims pleaded  for his life  ­ Applied for clemency  ­ Rejected twice, once under a republican governor  and once under a democrat  ­ Vienna Convention on Consulate Relations  ­ Supposed to be put in touch with your consulate after you  are arrested in a country you are not a native of  ­ Siripongs was executed  ­ International conventions about cultural differences    Legal Professions  ­ Government lawyers  ­ City attorney (zoning, environment)  ­ District attorney (each county)  ­ State Attorney General (immigration fraud, consumer  protection)  ­ Federal US Attorney General  ­ Solicitor General  ­ White House Attorney  ­ Solo Practitioner (law firm)  ­ Corporate law  ­ In house counsel  ­ Public interest law  ­ ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union, national and statewide)  ­ More left  ­ ACLG (American Center for Law and Justice)  ­ More right  ­ Center for Constitutional Rights  ­ Equal Rights Advocates  ­ Rutherford Institute (conservative pro­religion organization)    CYPREY (as close as possible) = when, if ever, has the circumstances  changed so much that you can interpret someone's will  ­ Rigs v. Palmer  ­ Grandson murdered his grandfather for his inheritance  ­ Should the grandson still get the money or have the  circumstances changed?             


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.