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CHE 105 Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements Week 3

by: Mecca Gordon

CHE 105 Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements Week 3 CHE 105

Marketplace > University of Kentucky > Chemistry > CHE 105 > CHE 105 Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements Week 3
Mecca Gordon
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About this Document

Covers chapter 2!! atoms elements isotopes atom structures Protons Neutrons electrons
General College Chemistry I
Dr. Beeram
Class Notes
atoms, elements, Isotopes, atom, stucture




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mecca Gordon on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 105 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr. Beeram in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see General College Chemistry I in Chemistry at University of Kentucky.


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Date Created: 09/10/16
Friday, September 2, 2016 Chapter 2: Atoms and Elements Law of Conservation of Mass -Lavoisier - In a chemical reaction, Matter is nighter created nor destroyed - the total mass of the materials you have before the reaction must equal the total mass of the materials you have after the reaction - Total mass of reactants = Total mass of products - Example: mass (Na) + mass ( Cl2) mass (NaCl2) 7.7g Na + 11.9g Cl2 19.6g NaCl2 - in the example we did not make nor destroy matter - simply added together. Law of Definite Proportions - Proust - All samples of a given compound, regardless of their source or how they were prepared, have the same proportions of their constituent elements. - Law of Multiple Proportions - Dalton When 2 elements, A and B, form 2 different compounds, the masses of B that combine with 1 g of A can be expressed as a ratio of small, whole numbers. 1 Friday, September 2, 2016 Dalton Theory Elements: Are composed of super small partials-Atoms - all atoms of a given element are identical. Compounds: composed of more than one element Chemical Reactions only involve the rearrangement of atoms. Atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions. Atoms Atoms- basic unit of elements- super small particles - Has electrical charge - Positive(+) and Negative(-) - opposite charges attract (+)(-) - like charges repel (+)(+), (-)(-) J.J. Thomson -cathode ray tube experiment shows 1. particles are real (something is hitting the plate) 2. particles are negative charge-electrons (they are repelled by the negative plate and attracted toward the positive plate Atom structure 3 parts of an Atom 1. Electrons (e-) - negatively charged particles found in all atoms - Cathode rays are made of stream of electrons - Charge: -1.60 x 10^ -19 Coulombs (C) - Mass 9.1 x 10^ -28 Grams (g) - Charge units -1 2. Proton (p/p+) - Positively charged particles, found in the nucleus of all atoms 2 Friday, September 2, 2016 - Charge: +1.6 x 10^ -19 C - Mass:1.67 x 10^ -24 g - charge units +1 3. Neutron - Neutrally charged partial found in the nucleus of all atoms - Charge: 1.67 x 10^ -24 - Mass: 0g - charge units 0 mass p = mass n = 1840 x Mass e- *Each element has a unique number of protons in its nucleus *Atomic Number: The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom *Elements are arranges in the periodic table in order of their atomic numbers. * Each element has a unique name and symbol * The atomic number can tell you how many protons are in the nucleus and how many electrons are in the neutral atom. Charged Atoms * When atoms gain or lose electrons they acquire a charge * Ions : Charged atoms or groups of atoms * Anions: Negatively charged ions-happens when atoms gains Electrons(e-) Remember electrons have an negative charge 0 + (-1) = -1 * Cation: Positively charged ions- Happens when atoms lose electrons 0 - (-1) = +1 Atomic Structure of ions * nonmetals form anions * Anions are names by changing the ending of the name to -ide example: oxygen O + 2e- O^2- oxide ion * metals form cations * cations are named the same as the metal Isotopes - Same element that has atoms with different masses - Natural Abundance percentage of an element that is one isotope is called the isotope’s natural abundance 3 Friday, September 2, 2016 * Isotopes of an element have the same number of protons * different isotopes of an element have different masses, because they have different numbers of neutrons * Isotopes are identified by their mass number - sum of all the protons and neutrons in the nucleus * Most elements have two or more stable isotopes Periodic Table Periodic Law: When the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic mass, certain sets of properties recur periodically. * elements with the similar properties are in the same column * Groups / Families: columns on the periodic tables * Periods: rows in on the periodic *Group 1A: Alkili Metals *Group 2A: Aliki earth metal *Group 3B-12B: transition metals *Group 3A-8A : nonmetals ADD SLIDES 101-104 4 Friday, September 2, 2016 Ionic Charge and the periodic table • The charge on an ion can often be determined from the element’s position in the Periodic Table. • Metals always form cations (positively charged). • For many main group metals, the charge equals the group number. • Nonmetals form anions (negatively charged). • For nonmetals, the charge typically equals the group number minus 8. ADD 107 Metals • Solids at room temperature, except Hg • Reflective surface — shiny • Conduct heat • Conduct electricity • Malleable — can be shaped • Ductile — can be drawn or pulled into wires • Lose electrons and form cations in reactions • About 75% of the elements are metals. • Lower left on the table Nonmetals • Found in all three states (solids, liquids, gases) • Poor conductors of heat Poor conductors of electricity • Solids are brittle. • • Gain electrons in reactions to become anions • Upper right on the table • except H Metalloids • Show some properties of metals and some of nonmetals • Also known as semiconductors 5 Friday, September 2, 2016 Atomic mass Molecules and ions monatomic- single atom -the noble gases are the only substances which exist as monatomic gas molecules - two atoms ore more in a definite arrangement her together by chemicals diatomic: contain only 2 atoms EX: H2,N2, O2, Polyatomic: Contains more that 2 atoms EX: O3. H2O, NH3d 1 mole = 6.022x10^23 atoms mole: number of particles equal to the number of atom in 12g of 126C -1atom of C weights exactly 12 amu - 1 mole of C weighs exactly 12g Avogardo’s Number = 6.022 x 10^23 Molar mass: Mass of one mole of atoms *molar mass of an element, in grams, in numerically equal to the elements atomic mass in amu * lighter the atom the less mass of a mole of those atom * lighter the atom, the more atom are the in one gram of those atoms. 6 Friday, September 2, 2016 7


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