Intro to the Horse: Week 2 Notes
Intro to the Horse: Week 2 Notes ASCI097
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Malcomson on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASCI097 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Jennifer Wilkinson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to the Horse in Animal Science at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Hannah Malcomson Intro to the Horse Week 2 Notes Origin of the Horse (family Equidae): 66 mya- 56 mya: early Eocene Epoch o First evidence of human ancestors and horse ancestors were found together in Polecat Bench, Wyoming o Plant life became less evergreen and more deciduous o Mammals began to eat flowers, fruits, shrubs, and grasses 34 mya- 10 mya: o Horses disappeared, but then showed up in the western hemisphere 7,000 BC: Ice Age o Horses disappeared, not sure why. Possible theories include: The environment changed rapidly and drastically, and the animals could not adapt and evolve quickly enough to survive Competition for limited resources was too extreme A disease or parasitic epidemic o Prior to extinction, horses crossed the land bridge (now the Bering Strait) to Europe/ Asia 1492- Columbus came to the Americas 1500’s- horses return to the Americas Evolution: Small Tall 4 toes 1 toe, 2 splint bones Swamplands forests grasslands Condylarth Prehorse- 75 mya 5 toes, low- crowned teeth Eohippus Eocene (56 mya)- called “Dawn Horse” 4 toes front, 3 toes hind 1 foot tall forest and swamp dweller low- crowned, soft teeth o ate leaves, bark, tubers, etc Epihippus late Eocene (46-38 mya) Seasons introduced to the global climate, few fossil records Mesohippus 38 mya 3 toes, bigger middle toe, but all three supported weight 2 feet tall low- crowned teeth Merychippus 28 mya 3 toes, only larger middle toe supported weight 3-4 feet tall high- crowned, hard teeth ate grass Pliohippus 12 mya 1 toe, 2 splint bones Pony size High- crowned, hard teeth Grazers Equus caballus 1 mya, North America 4.5- 6 feet tall o longer legs o larger body o larger skull and elongated jaw bone high- crowned, hard teeth grazer Domestication: to tame an animal to live in close association with humans (as a pet or as a work animal) Generations of selective breeding Domesticated animals generally lose the ability to live in the wild Pleistocene 35,000- 15,000 years ago o Ice Age o Horses were revered in artwork (cave paintings) Vogelherd Horse o 35,000 horse o Made of mammoth tusk, found in Southern Germant, 2 inches by inch sculpture of a horse Ancient Horse Art Abri du Cap Blanc in France Kapova Cave in Russia Chauvet Cave, France First evidence of domestication ~ 6,000 years ago o Parts of Europe and Asia o Eurasian Steppes ~ 3,500 BC Krasnyi Yar (Kazakhstan- Eurasian Steppes) o Corrals o High phosphorus levels- Horse manure o Botai Culture: Fossils show bit wear on molars of horses Thin cannon bones Consumption of horse milk Mesopotamia- ~5,000 years ago Horses for work and transportation Signs of Domestication: Changes in size and trait prevalence due to selective breeding lower genetic variability Weapons Art Skeletal and dental evidence Native Americans did not control breeding. The phenotype and genotype of the horses changed according to uses and climatological conditions. Domestication during the Ice Age allowed horses to survive in Eurasia, but went extinct in the Americas. Spread of Horses and Men Celts- Celtic Pont into Britain Romans- Friesians into Britain o Dales and Fell Ponies developed Moors- Arabians to Europe in 8 century
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