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Intro to the Horse: Week 2 Notes

by: Hannah Malcomson

Intro to the Horse: Week 2 Notes ASCI097

Marketplace > University of Vermont > Animal Science > ASCI097 > Intro to the Horse Week 2 Notes
Hannah Malcomson

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About this Document

Second week of class.
Intro to the Horse
Dr. Jennifer Wilkinson
Class Notes
horse history, Horse, evolution
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Malcomson on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASCI097 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Jennifer Wilkinson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to the Horse in Animal Science at University of Vermont.

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Date Created: 09/10/16
Hannah Malcomson Intro to the Horse Week 2 Notes Origin of the Horse (family Equidae):  66 mya- 56 mya: early Eocene Epoch o First evidence of human ancestors and horse ancestors were found together in Polecat Bench, Wyoming o Plant life became less evergreen and more deciduous o Mammals began to eat flowers, fruits, shrubs, and grasses  34 mya- 10 mya: o Horses disappeared, but then showed up in the western hemisphere  7,000 BC: Ice Age o Horses disappeared, not sure why. Possible theories include:  The environment changed rapidly and drastically, and the animals could not adapt and evolve quickly enough to survive  Competition for limited resources was too extreme  A disease or parasitic epidemic o Prior to extinction, horses crossed the land bridge (now the Bering Strait) to Europe/ Asia  1492- Columbus came to the Americas  1500’s- horses return to the Americas Evolution:  Small  Tall  4 toes  1 toe, 2 splint bones  Swamplands  forests  grasslands Condylarth  Prehorse- 75 mya  5 toes, low- crowned teeth Eohippus  Eocene (56 mya)- called “Dawn Horse”  4 toes front, 3 toes hind  1 foot tall  forest and swamp dweller  low- crowned, soft teeth o ate leaves, bark, tubers, etc Epihippus  late Eocene (46-38 mya)  Seasons introduced to the global climate, few fossil records Mesohippus  38 mya  3 toes, bigger middle toe, but all three supported weight  2 feet tall  low- crowned teeth Merychippus  28 mya  3 toes, only larger middle toe supported weight  3-4 feet tall  high- crowned, hard teeth  ate grass Pliohippus  12 mya  1 toe, 2 splint bones  Pony size  High- crowned, hard teeth  Grazers Equus caballus  1 mya, North America  4.5- 6 feet tall o longer legs o larger body o larger skull and elongated jaw bone  high- crowned, hard teeth  grazer Domestication: to tame an animal to live in close association with humans (as a pet or as a work animal)  Generations of selective breeding  Domesticated animals generally lose the ability to live in the wild Pleistocene  35,000- 15,000 years ago o Ice Age o Horses were revered in artwork (cave paintings)  Vogelherd Horse o 35,000 horse o Made of mammoth tusk, found in Southern Germant, 2 inches by inch sculpture of a horse Ancient Horse Art  Abri du Cap Blanc in France  Kapova Cave in Russia  Chauvet Cave, France First evidence of domestication  ~ 6,000 years ago o Parts of Europe and Asia o Eurasian Steppes ~ 3,500 BC  Krasnyi Yar (Kazakhstan- Eurasian Steppes) o Corrals o High phosphorus levels- Horse manure o Botai Culture:  Fossils show bit wear on molars of horses  Thin cannon bones  Consumption of horse milk Mesopotamia- ~5,000 years ago  Horses for work and transportation Signs of Domestication:  Changes in size and trait prevalence due to selective breeding  lower genetic variability  Weapons  Art  Skeletal and dental evidence Native Americans did not control breeding. The phenotype and genotype of the horses changed according to uses and climatological conditions. Domestication during the Ice Age allowed horses to survive in Eurasia, but went extinct in the Americas. Spread of Horses and Men  Celts- Celtic Pont into Britain  Romans- Friesians into Britain o Dales and Fell Ponies developed  Moors- Arabians to Europe in 8 century


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