PSL 250 Week Two notes
PSL 250 Week Two notes PSL 250
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ren K. on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSL 250 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Patrick Dillion in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 704 views. For similar materials see Introductory Physiology in Physiology at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
PSL 250 Lecture 2 (Part two) Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi body ● Membranes are made in the endoplasmic reticulum and provide vesicles which carry proteins away. ○ Vesicles are small self contained objects like a ball, made of membranes. ● Vesicles go to one other place besides the endoplasmic reticulum ○ They go to golgi complex/ apparatus (complex and apparatus are the same thing) ● Vesicles produce new membranes / complex lipid molecules. ● Lipids are fats. ○ They’re subcategory of fats within humans. ● Hydrophobic residues are outside vesicles they are fat s le. ○ This allows them to easily to move into membranes. ● Golgi are a series of membranes. ○ Newly manufactured membranes go through the golgi apparatus. Protein migration through Golgi ● As the proteins migrate through the golgi, a lot of things occur. ○ Inside vesicles, proteins will be modified. Leader sequences allow protein to be fed through a core. ○ General leader sequences are cut off from protein. ○ Amino acids change as well, physical modification occurring within the golgi app. ○ Proteins get modified while within the golgi apparatus. ○ Carbs are combined with proteins ■ Lots of carbs become attached to proteins on the outside part of membranes. ■ Outside surface of cell becomes the inside surface of the Golgi. ○ Sugars are water soluble means they cannot mix with fats; when you combine it with protein, it makes the protein remain in a fixed position / can’t move. ○ Sugars keep proteins within a certain shape, which identifies you as ‘you’ to your immune system. ○ The shape of the proteins with sugars outside are genetically determined unique per human being. ■ EX: Donor of organ and recipient; sugars have to match with other donor organ, otherwise the organ will be rejected and cause the recipient to become more ill. ■ Some people can get matches from your sibling but only if wholly matches. ■ Partial matches are worse than totally wrong matches. ● Partial matches activate t cells. (Bad reaction) ● Proteins are folded into their particular shapes by chaperones. ● If they’re folded into their proper shape,it means they have the proper function. Exocytosis ● Vesicles from the Golgi apparatus merge with export proteins and with the membrane and dump their contents. ● Exocytosis is ATP dependent. ● Vesicle approaches membranes, which merge with them resulting in the protein leaving the cell. ● This merge causes the inside of the membrane to be outside of the cell. ● EX: How pancreas deliver insulin to the outside of the cell. ● Intracellular Ca++ triggers exocytosis. ● Whenever exocytosis occurs proteins and membranes deposited outside. ● Every time exocytosis occurs cells become bigger because proteins and membranes build up on each other. ● Neuronal cells stay the same from birth. ○ Every time neuron transmitter emitted outside, they get bigger. ● Also has to have endocytosis occur to prevent massive growths. ● Acquisition of protein from outside endocytosis. Endocytosis ● Lysosomes are a protective mechanism to prevent cells from getting too big. ● Must occur to balance exocytosis. ● Extracellular molecules bind receptors and trigger membrane infolding. ● When the infolding occurs a small section of the cell, extracellular fluid and target fluid are randomly brought inside cell. Phagocytosis ● Macrophages, neutrophils are phagocytes. ● Bacteria or dead cells trigger phagocytosis. ● Phagocytes are huge in comparison to other types of cells. ● They surround an entire cell to remove toxins. ● White blood cells within lysosomes fuse with phagocytes. ● The white blood cells die off during the process phagocytes collect those too. ● Digest bacteria. (Mostly going to be dead bacteria bodies But still need to remove them) ● Pus = white because filled with dead white blood cells. Over the course of them dying, they got rid of the infection. Peroxisomes ● The purpose of peroxisomes is the elimination of molecular dangers. ○ 100 different enzymes structures within molecules and they eliminate those. ● Every molecule within us has an even number of electrons. ● Odd number electrons molecules are radicals. ○ Easily reactive = product will always be odd when they combine with a regular healthy cell ● Any product of radical reaction = abnormal and unhealthy. ● Different parts of molecules become radicalized = dysfunctional. ● Vitamin C binds to a radical long enough / hold them until another radical comes along and fuses with the radical, causing them to become an even number. ● Within fat content = vitamin e fulfills the same purpose as vitamin c. ● The ‘vitamin way’ is not as common because there simply isn’t enough vitamins within the cells. A more common way is the peroxisome method. ○ Peroxisomes break down long chain fatty acids and are present within the cytoplasm. ● Antioxidants remove protein destroying radicals. ● Hydrogen peroxide = poison; ○ High concentration within the body is harmful. ● Inside the peroxisome it has the catalase convert Hydrogen Peroxide to water and oxygen. ● Catalase is the fastest enzyme known in the human body. ● 1000 reactions per second rate of most enzymes. ● Hydrogen peroxide reaction rate = 1 million per second PSL 250 Lecture 3 Cytoskeleton ATP ● ATP run out of it = cells will DIE ● Adenosine triphosphate = Adenosine P P P ● Cellular Money = ATP easily transferable! ● ATP is the most transferable form of energy; ○ can be moved to other molecules very easily. ● Misnomer ATP doesn’t have high energy phosphate bonds but is rather more mobile. ● Glycolysis produces more energy than ATP does. ● X + ATP = X + P + ADP ○ Molecule X combined with ATP, results in X taking a phosphate to do an activity with a remainder being ADP ● X+P has an activity within it that X alone can’t do! Anaerobic and Aerobic ● Two way to create ATP; ○ Anaerobically without oxygen ○ aerobically with oxygen ○ Ana + greek word = not ○ A + greek = with ● Anaerobic process converts energy in sugars particularly glucose to ATP. ○ The food we eat, sucrose (disaccharide sugar), fructose and glucose. ● Fructose to glucose / glucose to fructose. ● Glucose directly right after you eat. ● Glucose is common denominator of sugar = most of that converted into glucose by body. ○ Every type of sugar can be converted into glucose, and glucose can be converted into any type of sugar. ● Glycolysis splits glucose. ○ Doesn't need oxygen. ● 9 enzymes needed to convert to create the end product pyruvate ● 80% of daily cals are used up during muscle contractions. ● The rest ion pumps. ○ Ion pumps pump sodium, potassium and calcium out of cells. ● Ion pumps = 20% of all energy you do everything else ● Getting ATP is NECESSARY. ○ Often located next to glycolytic enzyme,which allows it to donate ATP directly to the brain. ● There is enough energy in glucose for 70 atps. ● When we go through processes like this ask yourself ○ what goes in, what comes out and why is it use or tests. ● Glucose goes in. ● ATP comes out. ● Applies ATP for you to have some functions. Free ATP ● In the cytoplasm and cell membrane there is free atp for ion pumps ● NAD necessary. Always spell out N A D for correct pronunciation. ● Can’t run glycolysis with NADH, must convert back to NAD with pyruvate. ○ Results in lactic acid + NAD ● Lactic acid will rapidly dissociate into lactate. ● Lactate only produced so you can recycle it during the process of glycolysis. ● Need NAD available to create available lactate. ○ That’s why you need lactic acid.. ● Can't live on 2 ATPS. ○ 40 days without food ○ 4 days without water ○ Need to have oxygen to have ATP. 4 minutes before brain damage ○ Main idea ATP necessary for human life! Mitochondria ● Mitochondria is what creates ATP during aerobic energy production. ● The mitochondria has a double membrane structure. ● 2.5 mill years ago, a cell captured a bacterium but instead of destroying the bacterium, it began producing ATP. ● TCA cycle occurs inside matrix of inner membrane ○ The inner membrane is tough enough to hold whole thing together . ● Molecules produce membrane folds / within the surface area in a small space in the mitochondrial membrane. ● Matrix also has a membrane ● Kreb cycle Membrane = electron transport chamber. PSL 250 Lecture 4 Membrane Structure Membrane structure ● Separate intracellular from Interstitial IF ● Form membranes as a chemical and a physical barrier. ● Phospholipids are the backbone of all cells. ○ Phosphate molecules are always charged in humans. ○ Charged = hydrophilic (water soluble). ○ Soap like. ● Phospholipids form membrane bilayers ○ Line up with other phospholipid molecules and don’t mix easily with water. ○ Keep tails all associated together phospholipid bilayer. ○ Tail inside and the head outside. ● Phospholipids = backbone of membranes . ● Bonds individually are very weak, however once combined together they are able to hold the membrane together. ● Example: ○ When you blow a large bubble, it's very jiggly at first and then rebounds to a circular shape. ● Membranes and cells are flexible / fluid. ○ Membranes move around the hydrophilic outer sides of the membrane. ● Hydrophiles don't cross by diffusion, except h20. ○ Hydrophiles have a high water solubility because of their small size. ECF ========== LIPID bilayer ========= ICF ● Water is so small, smaller than phospholipids themselves and allow them to go through the phospholipid barrier ○ Example: Small fighter ship can infiltrate the Death Star because it's so small, and easily goes through the barrier. Cholesterol ● Liver manufactures cholesterol. ○ Cholesterol goes through the phospholipids. ○ Prevents close packing of fatty acid chains ● When you put force on your membranes, the cholesterol reasserts the shape, so it can continue to link the phospholipid. ● This keeps your cells intact, even under physical pressure. ● Absolutely essential to have cholesterol without it, cells would become significantly unstable. ● If cholesterol gets too high ○ you increase probability of a heart attack and a stroke. ● If cholesterol gets too low ○ your cell membrane gets less stable and the probability of getting metastatic cancer goes up. ● 1 person in 6 who has a 600 cholesterol vs a normal 200. ○ Uncontrolled cholesterol problem with the GI tract. ● Proteins in membranes ○ Some are untethered, like a log floating around in water. ○ Some are tethered to a structure within a cell. ● Receptors type of protein located on the outside. ○ Could bind to solute either chemical (neurotransmitter, hormone, drug) or ion. ○ Some are activated by a physical change (touch) ○ Receptor Example: ■ Smell binds to a receptor, taste binds to a receptor, neurotransmitter binds to a receptor. ○ Touch Example: ■ Retina goes from being bent to being straight. Activates the process to have the process of ‘vision’ Channel ● Only ions go through. ● Protein channels span the membrane. ● Balance between ion pumps allows receptor to open different pumps. ● Can open or close channels ○ Specialized by ion type K+, Na+, Ca++, CI Enzymes ● Catalyze reaction A B ● Most enzymes we’ll discuss are activated by receptors which turn on the particular enzyme. ● Some are activated by receptors and others are always active. ● Example: ● Aminergic receptors adrenaline epinephrine released from your adrenal glands when you have a traumatic experience; scared or very excited. ○ Generate a fight or flight response you want to activate muscle contraction and to breathe more deeply, ○ Blood vessels go to muscles and heart in an emergency situation this is useful. ○ Calcium causes muscle to contract, lower calcium = higher blood flow. ○ During emergency, calcium will flow to your digestive system causing blood vessel constriction. ■ This allows more blood to flow to the locations that you need it to flow to. Dockingmarker Acceptors ● Make sure that the vesicles ‘bind’ to the right location. ● Recognize and bind to secretory vesicles. ● Found in sites of exocytosis. Carriers ● Molecules just randomly open and close on both sides, depending on the concentration of the molecules. ● “Revolving proteins”, no ATPase. ● Alternate open side ● 2 types: ○ Molecules move with the gradient from high concentration to low concentration. ○ Cotransport with ions (Sodium). ■ Other cases located in kidneys with other ions, ○ Cotransport uses the ion gradient for its energy source. ■ From the outside to the inside (inward movement). ○ Sodium gradient either drives it in the same direction called cotransport ○ If it's driven in the different direction countertransport. ○ Ion gradient can use carrier molecules to transport in either direction. CarbohydrateProtein complexes ● Chains are sugars identify you as ‘you’ to your immune system. ○ Prevents immune system from attacking you personally. ● Sometimes with age, immune system will make a mistake. ○ Known as ‘autoimmune diseases’ type 2 diabetes. ● Why so many autoimmune diseases now? ○ Average age to survive was 50 sanitation problems, infections, food malnourishment. ○ What changed refrigerated stock car to transport fresh fruit, plumbing to prevent poor sanitation, penicillin, immunization. ○ We eat better, we are able to treat most disease better. ○ People are still dying of cancer just later. ○ If you live long your immune system gives out leading to autoimmune diseases more of us will die from autoimmune disease than our grandparents because we'll outlive the diseases that killed them. ● Basis for separation of cells into tissues during embryonic development. ● It limits normal tissue growth to a confined region keeps liver 3 lbs instead of 45. Intercellular Connections ● Proteins and large structure. ● Cancer research is the largest field within the NIH. ● CAMs Cell adhesion molecules are proteins ● Anchor cells to other cells or to basal lamina and reduce the metastasis of cancerous cells. Tight junction ● Block movement between cells. ● Create tissue sidedness like a top layer of plastic over cans. ● What do you not want between your skin, intestines, kidneys? ○ Bacteria, viruses etc. ● Kidneys allow selective transport to control what comes through and what does not get though. ● Kiss sites where proteins pull membranes tightly together. Desmosomes ● Cellular rivets. ● Prevent cells from being torn apart. ● Hold moving cells together; skin, heart. ● Reason why desmosomes always functional if they weren’t functioning correctly, the heart cells would rip apart and you would die on your first heartbeat. Gap junctions ● Ion channels ● Allow ions to go through from one cell to the next. ○ Produce a coordinated electrical signal activating the whole tissue. ● Allows a coordinated contraction that allows the heart to contract. ○ Heart, gi tract, bladder and the uterus in labor all rely on gap junctions. PSL 250 Lecture 3 Krebs cycle Krebs cycle ● Krebs cycle = TCA cycle = Citric cycle. They mean the same thing. ● Pyruvate is the fuel for the Krebs cycle. ● Fats are a major source of energy besides atp. ○ Fats enter energy matrix during this cycle ○ 15 16 18 carbon long storage. ○ Break down the carbon bonds to use fats for energy, two at a time. Two carbon units can enter energy production system here. ● CO2 is expelled out and takes one carbon away from pyruvate. ○ Takes 2 carbon units aways = acetyl CoA; oxidizes carbs for energy production. ● Fat metabolism and carb metabolism become identical when digesting fats. ● Fat energy can only be gotten during the aerobic cycle need oxygen to consume fats. ● TCA cycle occurs inside the matrix of inner membrane. ○ Electron transport system part of the inner membrane uses up the oxygen. ● First molecule made during the Krebs cycle is citric acid by COOH groups. ○ Citric acid = citrate in humans. ○ Tri carboxylic acid No questions about names on exam or on specific steps of the cycle. ● What is taken in: ○ pyruvate, FAD NAD == CO2, ATP, NADH, FADH2 ● CO2 flows into blood. ● Little ATP made. ● NAD separates from NADH allows it to be recycled. ○ H = one electron one proton ● Channels open up that allow hydrogen ions to pump molecules. ● Water molecules allow more ATP to be made. ● Example ○ When people die of cyanide poisoning it's because the cyanide binds to the cytochromes and prevents electrons from coming off. ○ Electron pathway is blocked. ● Cytochromes form the electron transport chain. ● Oxidative phosphorylation. ○ When electrons reduce molecular oxygen to water, free energy is liberated which can be used to generate ATP. ● There are three different pathways for the electron ions to move from paths. ● NADH donates electron to ETS, H+ follows and the NAD is recycled. ● As electrons move, h + pumped at 3 locations. ● Cytochromes make ATP on the return of H+. ● 50% efficient very efficient. ● Cells don't die when these changes occur don't run out of ATP, but run out of space to remove waste. Vaults ● Look like beer barrels and have a hollow interior. ● Vaults move between the nucleus, near genes and cytoplasm where proteins are made. ● MRNA and ribosomes move from the inside of the cell to the outside. ○ MRNA (a long strand like material) needs to negotiate a crowded environment. ○ Allows mrna to bind with local ribosomes. ○ Vaults identify which MRNA binds to the endoplasmic reticulum, with the interior of the cell or outside the cell and transport them to the proper location. ○ Then the process starts again. ● The polymer of the proteins is the cytoskeleton. ● 4 major polymers are responsible for structural elements within cells ● Microfilaments ● Microtubules ○ Made of a protein called tubular and have positively charged and negatively charged ends. ○ Tubulars takes on a spiral shape with the addition of the molecule called tubulin. ○ Longest cells in our body are nerve cells; ■ 1 meter long and 10 microns wide. ○ Reason for nerve cells not breaking despite being so thin, is because microtubes are tough. ■ Inside of all neurons, they allow electrons signals to pass through them. ○ Microtubules provide structural support ■ Responsible for cell stability, transport, along neurons, move vesicles, organelles and chromosomes. Movement ● Kinesin carries cargo along microtubules in + direction of membrane ○ Combines cargo moving things bigger than they are, moving things along cells. ○ Kinesin was discovered in the late 1990s. ○ Moves from nuclear area, towards end of the cell. ○ Can only move to end of the cell one direction. ● Dynein moves cargo in the direction away from the membrane. ○ Opposite version of kinesin, moves toward nucleus. ● Taxol ○ Anti cancer drug binds to and stabilizes MT’s, kills dividing cells. ○ Kills off fast dividing cancerous cells ■ Side effects occur because Taxol targets all fast dividing cells. ■ Blood cells + digestive tract cells. why anti cancer treatment has side effects there. ■ Digestive issues / anemia common. ● Keratin ○ Forms an intracellular framework. ○ Structure on insides prevents it from becoming spherical no roundin . Cilia ● Cilia are located within lungs. ○ You inhale dust, bacteria, etc when you breathe. ○ Cilia is responsible for moving dust particles towards your mouth, and those particles get swallowed. ● Propels mucus / ovum. ● Smoking impedes ciliar movement in lungs. ○ When you sleep, cilia moves bacteria out of lungs. ○ Smokers have a build up of junk within lungs because celia no longer transport out the wastes. ○ Smoking = Impairment of cilia. ● Within the oviduct, cilia move the ovum. ● Flagella are located within sperm which have a series of microtubules in them which run along the tail of the flagellum. ○ Microtubules enable the sperm’s rotary motion. ● Microtubules are rebar for cells. ○ Have intermediate filaments in them which are most prominent within the skin. ● Multiple dead cell layers in skin. ○ Men have more layers of dead skin vs women. ○ Dead skin provides a barrier to prevent bacteria from going in. ● Microfilaments ○ Thin filaments actin polymer ○ Thick filaments myosin polymer ○ Movements and muscles and WBC’s are what filaments are for.
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