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Chem 111 - Week 03 Notes

by: AveryLemler

Chem 111 - Week 03 Notes Chem 111

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About this Document

These notes cover Chapter 3: 3.1-3.4 and the Hydrogen Spectrum PhET simulation that we went over in class on Friday. They are a mixture of notes from the book and notes from lecture (I have highlig...
General Chemistry I
Dr. Ruth Tucker
Class Notes
Chemistry, Chem, General Chemistry, Colorado State University
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by AveryLemler on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 111 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Ruth Tucker in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/10/16
Chem 111 ­ CSU       Week 03 Notes      StudySoup ­ Avery   Chapter 3: Atomic Structure  Highlight​: Topics covered extensively in lecture  ​Highlight​: Will be provided on the exam    3.1: Waves of Light  ● Electromagnetic Radiation:​ any form of radiant energy in the electromagnetic  spectrum   ○ Visible light is the most familiar form   ○ Electromagnetic Spectrum: ​a continuous range of radiant energy   ■  Includes gamma rays, X­rays, ultraviolet radiation, visible light,  infrared radiation, radio waves  ■ Violet/Blue light: shortest wavelength, longest frequency, highest  energy  ■ Red Light: longest wavelength, shortest frequency, lowest energy  ● Wavelength(λ): ​the distance between each crest or each trough in a wave  measured in meters  ● Frequency(????): ​the number of the crests of a wave that pass a certain point per  second measured in Hertz  ○ Hertz(Hz): ​the SI unit of frequency with units of reciprocal seconds  ■ 1 Hz = 1 s​ = 1 cycle per second  ● Wavelength and Frequency Relationship​: ​λ????​ = ​  c   ○ c is a constant  ○ Wavelength and frequency have an ​inverse relationship    3.2: Atomic Spectra  ● Fraunhofer Lines: ​a set of dark lines in an otherwise continuous solar spectrum  ● Atomic Emission Spectra: ​patterns of bright lines that are produced when  atoms are vaporized in high­temperature flames or electrical­discharges  ○ Our eyes combine all bright lines into one color, but there are many that  are emitted for each element that is vaporized  Chem 111 ­ CSU       Week 03 Notes      StudySoup ­ Avery  ○ Unique to each element  ● Atomic Absorption Spectra​: ​patterns of dark lines that are produced when an  external source of radiation passes through free, gaseous atoms  ○ Dark lines that are being absorbed by the gas are the same bright lines  that are being emitted by the gas    3.3: Particles of Light: Quantum Theory  ● Quantum: ​the smallest quantity of a particular form of energy  ○ E = hv or E = hc/λ  ■ v = frequency of the radiation  ■ h = Planck constant  8​ ■ c = speed of light = ​2.998 x 10​  m/s  ● Planck Constant: ​the constant between the energy and  frequency of electromagnetic radiation (6.626 x 10​ ­3J∙s)  ● Quantum Theory: ​a theory based on the idea that energy is absorbed and  emitted in quanta  ○ Quantized: ​having values restricted to whole­number multiples of a  specific base value  ■ If you are walking up stairs versus a ramp, you can only be at  certain positions above the original sidewalk (you cannot stand  between stairs because there is nothing to stand on); a ramp has  continuous positions to stand on and is not quantized  ● Photon:​ a quantum of electromagnetic radiation  ○ “A package of energy”  ○ Represents the building block of electromagnetic radiation in the way that  atoms represent the building block of matter  ● Photoelectric Effect: ​the release of electrons from a material as a result of  electromagnetic radiation striking it  ○ The color of the material determines the temperature of it   Chem 111 ­ CSU       Week 03 Notes      StudySoup ­ Avery  ○ Threshold Frequency: ​the minimum frequency of light required to  produce the photoelectric effect  ■ Radiation of frequencies less than the threshold value produce no  photoelectrons  ○ Work Frequency: ​the amount of energy needed to set off the  photoelectric effect    3.4: The Hydrogen Spectrum and the Bohr Model  ● Hydrogen Spectrum: ​hydrogen emits certain wavelengths of light  ○ Rydberg Equation: c ​ alculates the inverse of the wavelength  ■ 1/λ = R​   H  7  ● R​ =H ​097 x 10​   ● Bohr Model: ​a model of an atom that depicts electrons traveling in circular orbits  around the nucleus  ○ Ex: Oxygen                            ● Ground State: ​the lowest energy of an atom or other particle  ○ When the electron in an atom is in the lowest energy shell ​(n = 1)  ● Excited State: ​any state of energy above the ground state  Chem 111 ­ CSU       Week 03 Notes      StudySoup ­ Avery  ● Electron Transition: ​the movement of electrons from energy shell to energy  shell  ○ As the electron moves farther away from the nucleus, its energy increases  ­18 ​ ○ E = ­2.178 x 10​ J   ■ All energy levels will be negative and get more negative as the  electron gets closer to the nucleus    PhET Simulation:   ● When the photons strike an electron, they pass kinetic energy to it.  ● A Hydrogen atom’s electron bounces from shell to shell as the photons give or  take away energy.  ○ When the electron releases the energy that was given to it by the photon,  a line is marked on the spectrometer (emission spectra) 


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