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Chapter 2: Atoms and Elements

by: Mia Hopkins

Chapter 2: Atoms and Elements Chemistry 1211

Mia Hopkins
GPA 3.83
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About this Document

These notes cover the subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. It also briefly covers the periodic table, isotopes, ions, and conversions.
Principles of Chemistry
Dr. Natalie Romano
Class Notes
Chemistry, atoms, PeriodicTable, Protons, Neutrons, electrons, Isotopes, ions




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mia Hopkins on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chemistry 1211 at Armstrong Atlantic State University taught by Dr. Natalie Romano in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Principles of Chemistry in Chemistry at Armstrong Atlantic State University.


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Date Created: 09/10/16
Principles of Chemistry: A molecular approach Chapter 2 Imaging and moving  Gerd, Binning and Heinrich Roher -- experiment with electric current over a flat metal surface = tunneling current to view atoms  Law of conservation of matter o Matter can neither created or destroyed  Total reactant = total product  Dalton - English chemist o Atomic theory of matter o Atoms are small, discrete, indivisible pieces of matter o Elements are made up of atoms o All atoms are the same  Law of definite proportions o Same thing every time in same proportions  Example: NaCl is always a 1:1 proportions  Law of multiple proportions o 2 elements A and X can form different compounds when made in different proportions  Ex: H2O and H2O2 or CO and CO2 Discovery of E-  Thomson's charge to mass experiments with cathode rays o He believed these particles were building blocks of matter o Cathode ray particles = E- Atoms  JJ Thomas and the Plum pudding model o Atoms are composed of a positive cloud of matter which e- are embedded in o This structure does not hold up today  Rutherford o Gold foil experiment o Led to Discovery of the nucleus o Beam would go straight through the solid but some particles would veer off to the side  It would hit the solid object and bounce off like a mirror  Part where most of the pass is -- discovery of the nucleus  Positive charge  Dense  Entire mass of the atom  Amount of + charge and - charge e- balance each other our  E- dispersed in empty space  Structure o Rutherford- solar system model  Atom is empty space with dense core with e- orbiting around o Nucleus had a particle that had the same amount of charge as an e-  Called p+ o For atom to be neutral-- must have same number of p+ and e- Periodic Table  Atomic number is the number of p+  Unique names- symbol either comes from the American version of the name, the Latin or the German (only one is German and that is Tungsten (W) )  Elements are arranged in order of their atomic numbers Isotopes o  Element with same number of protons but different masses due to more N in the nucleus  Atomic weight comes from the average of all the atomic masses of the isotopes  Mass number = protons + neutrons  Isotomic symbols = AzX o A is the whole number mass o Z is the atomic number o X is the element symbol  Atomic mass is the average of all naturally occurring isotopes  You need the mass and the percent abundance of each elements Ions  Charged atoms  Taking away e- results in a cation o Because there are now more p+ than e- in the atom  Gaining e- results in an anion o Because there are now more e- in the atom than p+  Cations o Atoms lose e- from the outer valence shell (e! level) o Positively charge because of more protons  Anions o Gain e- to outer valence shell o Negatively charged o Non metals tend to form anions Historical perspective of the Periodic Table  Dmitri Mendeleev o Developed modern day periodic table o Argued element properties are periodic functions of their weight o Periodic law  When elements arranged in increasing atomic mass, certain sets of properties occur  Elements having similar physical and chemical properties fall within the same column  Organization o Columns = groups/families  Have the same chemical and physical properties o Rows = periods  Metals o Solids at room temperature o Reflective surfaces (shiny) o Conduct heat and electricity o Malleable o Ductile o Forms cautions o 75% of periodic table is metals  Metalloids o Can either exhibit properties of metals or non metals  Depends on what they're bonded too o Known as semiconductors  Poor conductors of heat ; good conductor of electricity o Solids at room temperature  Nonmetals o Found in all 3 states of matter o Poor conductors of heat and electricity o Solids are brittle o Gain e- o Except for H, mostly found in the upper right of the periodic table  Families o Group 1a- Alkali metals o Group 2a- Alkaline earth metals  Form strong bases o Group 3-12- transition metals o Group 3a- Boron Group o Group 4a- Carbon Group o Group 5a- Nitrogen Group o Group 6a- Chalcogens o Group 7a- Halogens o Group 8a- Nobel gasses Moles  Unit of measurement o 6.022*10 = 1 mole  Avogadro's number  To go from mass to moles o Mass (g) * (1mol/atomic mass of element) = mole of element  To go from moles to grams o Mole of element * (atomic mass of element/1mol)  To go from mass to atoms (must go through Avogadr23s number) o Mass (g) * (1mol/atomic mass)*(6.022*10 /1 mole) = number of atoms  To go from number of atoms to mass o Number of atoms * (1 mole/6.022*10 ) * (atomic mass/1 mole) = mass (g)


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