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Cell Biology Notes

by: locnaschek

Cell Biology Notes BIOL 1406 02

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About this Document

These notes cover the biology of cells and the ways they are studied.
General Biology I (Majors)
Dr. Randall Terry
Class Notes
Science, Life Science, cells, cellular biology, cell communication, Microscopes, organelles, Proteins
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by locnaschek on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1406 02 at Lamar University taught by Dr. Randall Terry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General Biology I (Majors) in Biology at Lamar University.

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Date Created: 09/10/16
Cell Biology  Cells have a wide range of sizes o The unaided eye can see as small as about 1mm or about the size of a frog egg o A light microscope can see as small as the smallest bacteria (cells) o An electron microscope can see as small as an atom (macromolecules)  Cells are never smaller than 1 micrometer because there would not be enough space to fit  all necessary structures such as DNA and protein even for the smaller prokaryotes  Cells are never larger than 100 micrometers because there would be too much volume for the amount of surface area o The surface cannot support the inner volume at a certain point (about 100 µm) o Volume increases faster than surface area because V is cubed and SA is squared Types of Microscopes/ Techniques    Light Microscope o Cheapest type of microscope o Does not require much training for use (easy) o Cannot see very small due to the shorter wavelength of light o Can be used with particular stains or staining techniques to increase effectiveness    Electron Microscope o Much more expensive o Requires specialized training o Has two kinds  TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) shows 2­D  SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) shows 3­D o Has a smaller wavelength so it can show much smaller items and more details    Cell Fractionation o Works by putting cells in a blender with a liquid and pouring them into a  centrifuge tube where they are spun at different speeds for different times o The denser materials will sink earlier and are taken out once separated for study o Studies the components of the cell separately  This can be an advantage: allows for study of parts in isolation  Or a disadvantage: forces study in isolation, does not allow study of  interactions between components Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Cells    Prokaryotes: (include bacteria) o One “shaman” does all of the jobs, not especially well o Much smaller in size o Has circular chromosomes o Has no nucleus or other membrane bound organelles o Lacks an endomembrane system    Eukaryotes: (include everything else) o Much more complex due to use of compartmentalization (division of labor) o The “specialists” do one job that they are very good at o The nucleus makes sure that all of the separate parts work together to achieve the  same goal o Much larger in size o Has linear chromosomes o Has a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles o Contains an endomembrane system Plant vs Animal Cells    Plant: o Has chloroplast, cell wall, central vacuole, and plasmodenta o Has a boxy shape    Animal: o Has lysosomes, flagella, and centrioles o Has a round shape Protein Targeting The principle way the nucleus controls cellular activity Molecular machines called ribosomes function in protein synthesis o Ribosomes can be found free in the cytoplasm or bound to the ER There are two pathways:      Cytosolic Pathway of Protein Targeting­ used with proteins synthesized on free  floating ribosomes, involves cytoplasm, mitochondrion, chloroplast, and nucleus      Secretory Pathway of Protein Targeting­ used with proteins synthesized on bound  ribosomes, goes from ER to Golgi body to either plasma membrane or lysosomes The amino acid sequences tell the protein which path to take Endomembrane System A group of organelles (those involved in the secretory pathway) having membranes that  are either joined physically or communicate through vesicles Vesicles transport the proteins from the ER to the Golgi body to wherever it goes next Organelle Terminology    Nucleus­ control center of the cell, large, almost all DNA of the cell is inside it, full of  pores for entry and exit    Plasma Membrane­ all types of cells have this, outer layer of the cell    Cytoplasm­ semifluid substance internal to cell    Nucleoplasm­ semifluid substance internal to nucleus    Protoplasm­ living part of the cell    Ribosomes­ functions in protein synthesis    Endoplasmic Reticulum­ built of many foldings, joined to the nuclear membrane, there  are two kinds:      Smooth­ no ribosomes, responsible for phospholipid synthesis (membranes)      Rough­ has ribosomes, synthesizes proteins    Golgi Apparatus­ made up of many curved, flattened sacs, receives and transmits proteins and modifies them    Lysosomes­ functions in digestion of food particles and recycling old organelles    Cell Wall­ support of plant tissues, found in plant cells only    Central Vacuole­ functions in storage, found in plant cells only    Mitochondrion­ functions in ATP production, power house of the cell    Chloroplast­ drives photosynthesis, found in plant cells only  Cytoskeleton­ functions in cell shape and movement, like a monorail, made up of many  protein ropes in a complex framework


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