week 2 notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by odette antabi on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGT307 at University of Miami taught by marie dasborough in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see advanced organizational behavior in Management at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Week 2 A New Metaphor for American Culture • The “melting pot” theory of American society has evolved, instead consider a vegetable soup metaphor. • You can easily identify and taste the unique flavors of the individual parts. • Members of various cultural groups may not want to be assimilated, they want their tastes, looks and texture to remain whole. To reap the business benefits of diversity, you must employ inclusive work strategies • Soup—has an overall flavor, but can easily see and taste individual parts. • The parts exist together, contributing to the success of the soup, yet each part is still very different. Culture: “…the unique character of a social group; the values and norms shared by it’s members set it apart from other groups” (Lytle, Brett & Shapiro, 1999) • Culture is the unstated standard operating procedures or ways of doing things • Culture is something that: • is shared by almost all members of a social group, generally without thinking about them. • older members of the group pass on to younger members, and • shapes behavior, or structures one’s perception of the world (such as morals, laws and customs) National Cultural Differences • A nation’s values and norms determine attitudes and behaviors acceptable or appropriate • People are socialized into national values as they grow up • Significant differences between national cultures exist and make a difference in how leaders and employees behave in organizations The whole world is become more globalized. Which can make some cultures be shaped by others and become more similar or it can also do the inverse effect by wanting each culture to keep their values. Cultural-diversity Challenges • How we communicate with each other: Direct vs indirect communication. • Trouble with accents and fluency. • Different attitudes regarding hierarchy and authority. (power distance) • Conflicting norms for decisionmaking Impediments to Cross-Cultural Communication • Irrational Assumptions • Misunderstanding • Prejudice • Fear Manifestations of Culture in the Workplace How Culture Shapes Work-Related Perceptions • People—focus on other person’s attributes that are consistent with local cultural tendencies. • Events—can create social obligations. • People and events—create contextual circumstances that affect the application of principles in some societies. • Time—is an inflexible commodity in some societies and a fluid circumstance in others. Combating Stereotypes and Making Better Sense of Culture • Learning and emerging yourself in different cultures • Culture mentor: a person from the other place, or from a the same place as you but that has experienced that culture before. • Engage with other cultures to test any “sophisticated stereotypes.” • Find help from cultural mentors. • Carefully analyze information that appears inconsistent with your cultural stereotypes. • Develop mental maps that will improve your effectiveness. • Select people with cognitive complexity for international positions. • Stress incountry training for people working abroad. • Evaluate cultural expertise among personnel already in foreign countries. Cultural awareness • Know your own cultural background. If you understand your own culture first then you can perceive how the other culture is perceiving you. • Recognize your own stereotypes and biases. • Gain knowledge of cultural history and heritage. • Be aware of other’s perceptions. • Recognize effects of ism on the others Key Skills Needed in Culturally Diverse Workplaces Global mindset: How well can you adapt, are you open minded to adapt. Global passport in your head, natural curiosity, not being frustrated or intimidating but enjoying the differences. Flexibility : how willing you are to adapt Perspective taking helps you with empathy Emotional intelligence: perceive emotions in other people and regulate your own emotions Global Mindset Model Global Intellectual capital: GIC – cognitive side (knowledge) Cognitive complexity: can you think various things in your mind Cosmopolitan outlook Global business savy: doing business in other places Easy to improve you can learn it buy studying and reading Global Psychological Capital: GPC – emotional (passion for it) Passion for diversity: Love to travel seeing different things quests for adventures: Take some risks Self awareness: Are you confident Global social capital: GSC – behaviors (how you behave) Not as easy to change Stereotypes about women at work? Stereotypes are involved with the glass celling Women are too emotional If they have kids they are not good and work anymore Sexual Orientation • Stereotypes: lesbians hate men, lesbians look mannish, gay men are effeminate. • Unlike many of the other forms of diversity that we’ve spoken of so far, sexual orientation is easier to hide. • This does not make it any less problematic, however. • GLBTs are faced with the need to assess every situation they are in to determine whether, when, and how they should reveal their orientation. The social gymnastics or extensive impression management required to keep this up on a daily basis are stressful and exhausting.
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