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Biology 1030 with Velta Napolean-Fanis week 3

by: Regan Notetaker

Biology 1030 with Velta Napolean-Fanis week 3 BIOL 1030

Marketplace > Middle Tennessee State University > Science > BIOL 1030 > Biology 1030 with Velta Napolean Fanis week 3
Regan Notetaker

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in class material + notes from textbook readings
Exploring Life
Velta Napolean-Fanis
Class Notes
Biology, biochemistry
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Notetaker on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1030 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Velta Napolean-Fanis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Exploring Life in Science at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 09/10/16
Biology Notes Week 3 These notes cover information from the online textbook, Phelan text, and in class lectures The “big four” elements in the human body are Carbon (18.5%), Oxygen (65%), Nitrogen (3%), and Hydrogen (9.5%). Ionic bond: 2 oppositely charged ions attract each other to form an ionic compound. Ex. NaCl Cohesion: high surface tension (in water) caused by the hydrogen bonds that make water stick to things. Ex: think of a droplet of water stuck to a car window or a leaf high up in a tall tree Water has a high heat capacity and a lower density when frozen, and acts as a “universal solvent” This is the pH scale. Acids have H+ ions, while bases have OH- ions. Biochemistry: Chemical processes within and related to living organisms 6 essential elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur (CHONPS) Life is more than a collection of atoms, it is an emergent property Elements cannot be further broken down by chemical means 4 complex molecules make up life: Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids ATOMS are composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons Number of protons = atomic number Mass number – atomic number = number of neutrons The arrangement of outer (valence) electrons determines how an element bonds to other atoms. Some elements do not bond because their outer shell is full. These are called noble gases and can be found in group 8 on the periodic table Chemical Bonds: 1. Covalent: electrons shared, very hard to break, unequal sharing causes polarity. Polar molecules are water soluble; however, nonpolar molecules are not water soluble. 2. Ionic: strong, transfer 1+ electrons to another atom. Atoms become ions, meaning they are positive or negatively charged. Opposites attract, keeping the atom together. 3. Hydrogen: weak, found in molecules and DNA, unequal sharing causes water to be polar (2 positive hydrogen atoms and 1 negative oxygen atom) Properties of Water: Water is cohesive (its sticks to things- think of a water droplet sticking to a leaf or condensation on a glass of ice water). It is the universal solvent: it can break down ionic compounds. It has a high heat capacity, meaning it takes a lot of energy to heat up water (think of all the times you have waited for an eternity for a pot of water to boil). Water in frozen form (ice) is less dense that liquid water. This is important because it causes ice in the ocean to float and stay at the top, providing a surface for all the polar bears to walk on and keeping the ice from falling down and striking an unsuspecting fish. All cells require water Solution = solvent + solute Osmosis: movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane, from hypotonic to hypertonic environments (moves to wear its needed) Tonicity = pressure 1. Hypertonic: solute concentration is greater outside the cell (water exits cell, making it look shriveled up) 2. Hypotonic: solute concentration is greater inside the cell (water enters cell, making it look swollen) 3. Isotonic: solute concentration is the same inside and outside the cell. Biochemistry pt. 2 Solutions have pH Water naturally dissociates (breaks apart) into ions Pure water has equal amounts of ions making it neutral ph 7 Acids mixed with water add H+ ions, decreasing PH Bases mixed with water removes H+ ions, increasing ph Many biochem reactions occur at ph 7 Carbon dioxide gas is an acid and is carried by blood to the lungs to be breathed out, because it is toxic. Low blood CO2 increases ph, while high blood CO2 decreases blood ph Ocean acidification: ocean water absorbs CO2 making it more acidic; this can harm marine life. The normal ocean ph is around 8 (slightly basic) Acid rain: fossil fuels release sulfure oxide and nitrogen gas. The ph of rain in Tennessee in 2008 was 5.6 (about the same acidity as soda). Consequently, clogging the vessels (xylem and phloem) of trees, killing them, and killing fungi Carbon: the basis of life.. but why? Carbon has 4 valence electrons, making it possible for it to bond to 4 other elements to create complex macromolecules essential for life It is the backbone if these organic molecules. Some functional groups: 1. Hydroxyl-OH- Sugars- soluble in water 2. Amino Group – NH2 – amino acids (building blocks of proteins) – base 3. Carboxyl – COOH – sugar, fat, amino acid, weak acids, Organic Molecules: all have monomer and polymer units, all carbon based, built through dehydration synthesis, broken down through hydrolysis Dehydration synthesis is a process that removes water, creating a covalent bond. Hydrolysis adds water breaking a covalent bond 1. Proteins: made of amino acids (monomer) and the polymer unit is called a polypeptide There are 100,000+ proteins. Keratin (skin and nails), Hemoglobin (moves oxygen through blood), amylase (digestive enzyme that breaks down starch), HGH (sex hormones). Proteins provides structural support (bones, exoskeletons), protection, and transport functions. Enzymes are proteins: specific shapes have specific roles. Catalysts lower the activation energy of a reaction Denaturing: active site of enzyme changes shape to prevent the substrate from binding 2. Carbohydrates: energy storage & structural support Monosaccharides: 1 molecule (simple sugars)  They are the monomer unit  Glucose, fructose, and galactose are monosaccharides Disaccharides: 2 molecules, simple sugars, sucrose and lactose (fructose + glucose = sucrose) Polysaccharides: 300+ molecules (amylose) form a chain of sugars linked together. i.e. starch Complex carbs: oatmeal, pasta, starch + fiber, Glucose provides energy for body’s cells. -fuel for cell activity, stored temporarily as glycogen, converted to fat, carbs to glucose Fiber aids in digestion 3. Lipids: fats, oil, steroids, insoluble in water, function: cushion organs, store energy, (cell membrane think phospholipid bilayer) triglycerides water proofing for fur & feathers Triglycerides (found in human fat) Saturated: C binds to 2 H atoms Unsaturated: 1 C binds to 1 H Hydrogenated: artificial addition of hydrogen atoms (i.e. chocolate) Steroids: 4 interlocking rings of carbon Natural, anabolic steroids promote muscle growth, synthetic steroids can be found in anti anxiety meds 4. Nucleic Acid: store heredity info (DNA RNA), transfers heredity info, monomer: nucleotides (suger, phosphate group, nitrogenous base) polymer: nucleic acids (DNA & RNA) RNA: cytosine, guanine, adenine, uracil DNA: Cytosine, guanine, adenine, thymine Ribose is found in the nucleus and deoxyribose is found in the cytoplasm


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