Developmental Psych 2300 with Dr. Seth Marshall
Developmental Psych 2300 with Dr. Seth Marshall PSY 2300
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Popular in Psychology
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Notetaker on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2300 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Seth Marshall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Psychology with Dr. Marshall WeekTH Notes + study guide for exam 1 FIRST EXAM IS TUESDAY SEPTEMBER 13 Pre-Birth Learrning and Memory Studies In developmental terms, birth is a relatively insignificant event. How do developmental psychologists study pre-birth brain activity/development? Newborn infants sample mother’s vs. stranger’s milk. Rate of consumption is higher to mother’s milk, indicating that the sense of taste is developed at birth. This is an example of a study of discrimination of sensory input Cry melodies- Wermeke can analyze sound waves of cries. Found that german, French, etc. babies’ cries correspond with their native tongue. The babies seem to be reproducing sounds they heard while in the womb. Habituation: change in behavioral response to a stimulus after repeated exposure. Habituation in newborns related to IQ and language ability in children. “The womb is a classroom,” -David Chamberlain, 1995 Three stages of Birth 1. Contractions: becoming closer, more intense with time. Cervix stretches 10cm. lasts 12-14 hours on average 2. Crowning: baby emerges. Lasts average of 45 minutes 3. After birth: the gross part no one remembers involving the umbilical cord, placenta, and other weird shit coming out APGAR (appearance, pulse, grimace, activity respiration) This is a test given to newborns in their first minutes of life to evaluate their health or lack there of Low birth weight: <5.5lbs Very low birth weight: <3.25lbs Causes/ risk factors: also known as teratogens- these are outside factors that harm the baby while it’s in the womb. IE: smoking, alcohol, malnutrition, age of mother, caffeine, stress, overexertion Pregnancy vs. Brain drain? Some women experience brain shrinkage A pregnant woman’s brain can shrink 3-5%, but bounces back to normal within 6 months of birth 70% of women experience difficulty learning new things in the 9 month of pregnancy 10% of women experience difficulty learning months after giving birth Post-partum depression: 6 weeks after birth mothers become extremely depressed due to fatigue, weight, and the extreme adjustment Infant care practices ease the adjustment for dads Infant Development Rousseau- baby is the perfect idiot William James- baby is experiencing sensory overload, one great blooming, buzzing confusion Building Blocks of Cognitive Infant Development Are babies blank slates? Maybe not.. they are born with several instinctive reflexes Moro Reflex: thrusts out limbs when head and neck aren’t supported- disappears after first few months when baby can support its own head and neck Palmer Grasp: holds finger in palm with remarkable strength Plantar Grasp: toes curl / grasp when foot is touched Sucking Rooting: when cheek is touched baby turns toward stimuli and attempts to latch on Walking: bipedal movement Tonic neck reflex: baby looks like its fencing Swimming reflex: baby moves arms and legs and holds breath when placed in water Imitation reflex: newborns mimic faces, as young as 10 minutes old babies have the ability to mimic facial expressions of mom and dad.. building blocks of attachment What is a baby thinking? Sucking, looking, brain imaging, heart rate, behavior Babies like to hear baby talk known as “motherese” Preferential Learning Paradigm: preference for looking at human faces Babies prefer to watch people speak their native tongue (even at 0 volume) Jean Piaget: Children do not think like grown ups Sensorimotor stage of development is 0-2 years, this stage focuses on reflexes, habits, coordination, and goal orientation Primary Circular Reactions: 1-4 months, habits around body Secondary Circular Reactions: 4 months – 1 year, habits around environment Tertiary Circular Reactions: (1-2 years “scientific exploration”) Lack of Object Permanence “out of sight out of mind” babies learn object permanence in 1 year Lecture Notes 9/8/16 Short term memory: the a-not-b error hides objects under blanket or towel to see if the infant will find it Theories of Language Development Behaviorism: environment (nurture) Nativism: brain prewired (nature) Developmental Milestones for Language Months 1-5: cooing 6-18: babbling 10-13: first words “mama” 12-18: one word sentences “mama” might mean “where’s my mama” 18-24: vocab spurt 24-30: simple sentences “grandma go bye bye” These milestones are the same internationally, and even deaf babies babble in their own way with their hands Critical/Sensitive Period of Development “Genie” case study, feral child raised in isolation for 1 13 years. Bilingualism: Ellen Bialystok, 2011 102 people with probably alzheimer’s vs. 109 monolingual with probable alzheimer’s : the bilingual people experienced symptoms 5.1 years later Theory of mind- ability to think of and see things from other’s perspective. This is a HUGE developmental milestone Language & Poverty Hart and Risley conducted a daring study in 1995 where they went into the homes of welfare, middle class, and wealthy families and recorded everything that was said minus words on the television, they found that socio-economic status highly correlates with how well a child develops language. Narration while taking care of babies positively impacts language development How social are babies? They are very responsive to caregiver’s emotions Depth perception and fear of heights is actually a developmental milestone Nonverbal communication influences babies’ decisions in uncertain environments (visual cliff experiments) Harry Harlow’s attachment experiments: he took newborn monkeys from their mothers and raised them in isolation, then returned them to social environments. His initial theory was that we overestimate the power of mother-baby relationship to development (Motherhood Obsolete theory). He was wrong; when the monkeys where returned to their normal social environments they failed to thrive, were antisocial, self-harmed by biting and picking at their skin, demonstrated autistic-like symptoms, and were sexually dysfunctional. Contact Comfort: holding babies is just as important as feeding them Strange Situation Experiment: How does child connect with mother vs. stranger. Baby reconnects with mother after being alone with stranger Pediatricians recommend breast over bottle feeding. The benefits are easier digestion, and the antibodies in breast milk help build the child’s immune system
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