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Chapter 4 TXBK Notes

by: Tiara Notetaker

Chapter 4 TXBK Notes POSC 103

Tiara Notetaker
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These are the basic notes to Chapter 4 of our POSC 103 Textbook - Introduction to American Government 8th Edition by Turner.
American National Government
Joseph Rudolph
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiara Notetaker on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POSC 103 at Towson University taught by Joseph Rudolph in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see American National Government in Political Science at Towson University.


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Date Created: 09/10/16
Chapter 4 – Political Ideologies 4.1 American Political Ideologies Ideology – spells out what is valued vs. not valued, what needs to be maintained vs. changed  Divided into liberal and conservative  Radical ideologies: libertarianism and democratic socialism (defined later) 4.2 Liberalism Liberalism – ideology that regards the individual as rational and capable of overcoming  obstacles without violence  Roots: John Locke’s contract theory – supported limited government that protects the  people’s rights. Inspired Thomas Jefferson in writing the Declaration of Independence.  Classical liberalism (1800s, Presidents Thomas Jefferson and Andrew Jackson): wanted  small business owners and farmers to compete in the economic system ­> very little  government involvement other than the protection of property rights. ­ Exp. President Jackson fought against the national bank in fear of it assisting the elite.  Populism (1880s): wanted further democratization of government (direct election of  Senators) and economic reforms  Progressivism (1900­1920s, Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson):  Supported government programs ­ Roosevelt: Meat Inspection Act ­ Wilson: 8­hr work day for railroad workers.  ­ Wilson: Felt that if Jefferson had been alive in the 1900s, he would have understood  that leaving an individual alone is leaving them helpless (this explains the attitude  shift of the Democratic party/ why they now see government aid to be so important).  Contemporary liberalism: ­ (1930­1940s, President F.D. Roosevelt): New Deal = government help during the  Great Depression. Exp. Social Security ­ (1960s, President L.B. Johnson): Great Society = health care and extended welfare  benefits ­ (1993­2001, President Clinton): Industrial policy = a proposed partnership between  government officials, corporate and union leaders, and public interest groups  Liberals are against military­oriented foreign policy (exp. War in Iraq/Afghanistan)  Neoliberalism – promotes wealth (not the redistribution of wealth) and the reform of  military practices (not the reduction of military spending).  Who makes up the Democratic Party? Minorities, the labor movement, feminists, and  the lower class 4.3 Conservation Conservatism – emphasizes the value of tradition/established practices as guides for the future.  Roots: Edmund Burk (1790) – people should only seek change when necessary and rely  heavily on the past. Only the ruling class (property owners) should run the government.  Early American Conservatism (1735­1826, President John Adams):  ­ Supported the Constitution because the poor couldn’t steal from the rich & vice versa ­ Saw the Supreme Court as the guarantor of property rights. ­ Believed men without property lacked virtue and shouldn’t vote  Industrial­Age conservatism:  ­ laissez­faire economics – economic system that operates free of government control ­ Herbert Spencer and William Sumner (1820­1910): theory of social Darwinism –  economic competition leads to the survival of the fittest, those who survive are  superior and are fit to run the country. They opposed governmental aid to the needy.  Contemporary conservatism: ­ Against affirmative action and welfare state programs because it creates a permanent  class of the poor who are dependent on the state. ­ Believes in promoting virtue, social responsibility, and good morals (exp. They do  not support abortion or gay rights and are against banning prayer in schools) ­ They now promote the referendum process where the people can vote on policies  (when they were originally distrusting of the non­elite population)  (Notable) Conservative Presidents: ­ 1920, Warren Harding – began an era of conservative dominance until 1932 ­ 1981, Ronald Reagan – tax reductions, domestic spending cuts, defense build up ­ 2000, G.W. Bush – tax cuts, defense spending, environmental deregulation  Republican Party Presidents include Dwight D. Eisenhower, Richard Nixon, and Gerald Ford, but they didn’t like ideological labels like being called a Republican  Neo­conservatism: ­ Rejects the idea that the government can solve social problems ­ Rejects the use of racial or gender preferences to make the hiring process fair ­ Believes liberals have promised too much to too many groups of people ­ Supports a modest welfare state (Social Security, unemployment insurance,  Medicare) ­ Supports continued U.S. leadership in world affairs, not isolationism 4.4 Ideological Challenges to the Status Quo  Democratic Socialism – economic system completely within government regulation,  major industries are owned by an elected government, which directs the economy  ­ It rejects violent revolutions (unlike communism) ­ Limits individual wealth and property ­ Guarantees healthcare, education, food, and shelter to everyone ­ Believes that capitalism has succeeded in creating wealth, but failed to solve poverty o Equal opportunity is not enough, there must be equal results o Motivated not by individual gain, but by social responsibility (exp. Bernard  “Bernie” Sanders)  Libertarianism – economic system without any government regulation. The government should only protect the rights to life, liberty, and property  ­ Doesn’t believe that prostitution, gambling, or smoking marijuana is a crime, but part  of an individual’s private life ­  Believes the U.S. shouldn’t interfere with other nations because military alliances  lead to war and war preparation increases the roles of the government (Exp. The draft  is considered involuntary servitude)  Tea Party (2009) – named after the Boston Tea Party ­ Supports Fiscal responsibility ­ Supports constitutionally limited government ­ Supports free markets ­ Doesn’t run candidates for office


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