Week 3 Global Politics
Week 3 Global Politics POS 160
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abbey Schroeder on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POS 160 at Arizona State University taught by Henry Sivak in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
The Fog of War ● Lessons are given when Robert McNamara looks back on his life ● 1) Empathize with your enemy ○ Put yourself in their skin, to understand their thoughts and actions ● 2) Rationality will not save us ○ We lucked out, that is the reason why we didn’t have nuclear war ○ Humanity needs to think about if we want this kind of killing to be in the 21st century ● 3) There’s something beyond one’s self ○ 20% abort rate because soldiers were getting scared, until reinforced by strict commander ● 4) Maximize efficiency ○ Must go through trial and error before you can maximize efficiency ● 5) Proportionality should be a guideline in war ○ Who is killing who? Depending on who is killed does that make it more/less moral? ○ Must consider all the facts before making accusations ● 6) Get the data ○ Are you in the market? (war dogs) = judgment, assumptions, and confusion leading to seemingly rash decisions ● 7) Belief and seeing are both often wrong ● 8) Be prepared to reexamine your reasoning ○ If we can’t convince our similar allies about our cause, we should reevaluate ● 9) In order to do good, you may have to engage in evil ○ Similar to Machiavelli ○ How much evil must we do in order to do good? ● 10) Never say never ○ Answer the question you wish you’ve been asked ● 11) You can’t change human nature ○ The fog of war war is so complex that it is beyond the capability of the human mind to understand ○ Reason has limits Realist wrapup ● Classical focus on “man” and ‘his’ natures dates back to the era of natural law (Hobbes and Machiavelli). In the 20th century, it became the basis for thinking about the organization of power and authority in the state system ● Structural the shift to structural realism brought the focus on the anarchical structure of the state system and on the challenges of establishing hegemony WITHOUT a formal empire. This, of course, fed well into the Cold War ○ Democratic ‘peace’ democracies don’t fight each other ○ Limits of sociological theory and practice ○ Limits of institutionalism ○ The limits of interdependence ○ The Cold War provided a sort of running narrative that justified realist/neorealist ideas and claims ○ Even though the Cold War there were plenty of cracks in the “house of realism” that called into question basic assumptions and claims ■ Quantitative revolution starts ● Positivist philosophy that takes objective view, and assumes we can see them as they really are (ontology) ○ Distinguishing outcomes through changes in explanatory conditions. Identifying variables whose values lead states variously down the path to war/peace ■ Can apply to future conflicts in how to address and prevent ○ ‘The truth is really out there’ ‘conspiracy theories’ ○ Ontology reality, what the world is made of ○ Epistemology what things mean ○ Essentially leading to behaviouralism Evolution of computer tech ● Alan Turning was original man to experiment with a computer interpreting data (30s) ● John von Newmann took Turning’s work and evolved it to assist in making IAS and ENIAC ● WWII and the quantitative revolution ○ Faith in the instrumental power of science ○ The ‘scientization’ of the Social Sciences ■ OSS Office of Stratigic Services (CIA) ■ SSRC Social Science Research Structures ■ ONR, Ford & Rockefeller foundations ■ RAND research and development for quantitative reserach ○ All this allowed a diverse range of personnel and expertise, to improve military intelligence = ‘big science’ model ● Behaviouralism ○ Focusing in ontology/ epistemology, Positivism, Law of large numbers, Quantitative revolution, Probability theory, Quantification, Game theory and modeling ○ DSM Psychiatric quantification of what it means to be mentally ill ■ Meeting certain qualifications for insurance coverage, diagnosis