Management Theories in Communication
Management Theories in Communication COMM 6120-01
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mariah Tucker on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 6120-01 at Southern Utah University taught by Dr. Arthur Challis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Organizational Communication in Communication at Southern Utah University.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Organizational Communication Dr. Arthur Challis Week 3 Notes Management Theories This class is heavily focused on the different management and organizational theories, so some of the content may overlap. If you see anything that was mentioned in another set of notes, it was probably mentioned again in class, and that’s why it was included in the notes. This week was a historical perspective, so it will touch on the theories that were introduced in the previous notes, but include other information as well. The structure of an organizational can be studied as a discipline. Change is an inevitable factor in organizations, so in organizations there is an occasional transition period between the changes in structure. It is essentially a time when people decide what changes and what is okay to leave the same in an organization. Sometimes changes happen because the organization is changing or expanding, but sometimes the change arises from the effects of the media. Sometimes an issue arises and the media covers it in a way that the organization structure needs to change in order to resolve the issue not only within the company, but in the public’s eyes as well. The size of the organization is affected by the amount of time needed to fully transition with the change, as well as the number of people that will be affected by the change. Organizational structure changes can be affected by changes in culture, belief systems, and society norms surrounding the organization. For instance when same sex marriage was legalized in the United States, organizations such as government agencies, wedding planners, wedding venue companies, and even religious organizations had to make a decision about how their specific organization was going to respond to this change in the laws. Some of the organizations needed to change no matter what their specific opinion on the matter was, such as the governmental organizations. Since it was a passed law, the governmental organizations needed to adapt their policies to adhere to that law. The planners and the venue companies could choose to turn away clients wanting to plan a same sex wedding, but they would risk losing clients in the process, so they had to decide whether or not they were willing to adhere to the changes for their business. Religious organizations also were given the right to choose whether or not they would allow same sex marriages to be performed within their buildings. The changes weren’t mandatory, but multiple organizations were affected by this change in the law. Organizations are a part of everyday life, whether we realize it or not. We have organizational structure in the way we get ready for the day, the way we interact with different people, and even the way that we set up our schedules. We generally have a system for getting ready in the morning, so we are prepared for the different things we need to do throughout the day. Art said he thought Dream Chaser by Sia gave a good illustration about the way that we have organization in our everyday interactions with different people, because he believes it is an accurate reflection of reality. Art touched on the way that organizational discipline has changed over the last 100 years. He said in the early study of organizational structures, individuals could be fired without a cause, and there were no organizations such as Human Resources to help them defend their case. People could essentially be fired for looking at the manager the wrong way, but today there are protocols designed to make sure that each employee is treated fairly, and that they are actually being fired for a reason. He shared insights about how the discipline structure of the educational system has changed over the years. He said when he was in school the instructor had full rights to discipline students the way that they saw fit. He said they used to break rulers over their desks to scare them into keeping on task. Since then a number of rules and regulations has changed the way teachers within a school choose discipline students. If you know anything about the school system, you probably realize that the student actually has the ultimate power instead of the teacher, because of the way that the organization structure has had to change over the years to accommodate societal changes. Henri Fayol is a classical theorist, who is credited with the addition of the Administrative Management Theory to the research of organizational structure. Fayol wasn’t really concerned with the people in an organization, but more with the bottom line. He sought initiatives to provide harmony and cohesion within a workplace, in order to maximize potential gains and profits. His theory was less concerned with what people knew, and focused more on what they could actually do. He essentially wanted employees with practical knowledge relating to skills they possessed instead of knowledge that was just information they knew. Today we live in an information age, and our time period favors general knowledge more than Fayol did in his time. Practical knowledge is still an important factor in the way our society runs, but that’s not all that is important to potential employers in this day and age. In the early civilizations, and basically up into the industrial revolution, a majority of people were farmers, and it was an agrarian society. Essentially a person would raise crops for themselves and their family, and they were lucky if they were able to get something extra from what crops they sold to others. If they didn’t raise enough, or earn enough, they would continue to work until they were able to meet the requirement they needed to. After the industrial revolution we shifted from an agrarian society, to an industrialized society. The industrialization provided different organizations to open up factories and stores all over the country. Even shops and factories that essentially produced or sold the exact same thing had different structures. Art used one of the students who works with the basketball team, and discussed the different ways the different coaching staff have managed the team over the years. They all essentially were working towards the same goal with the same team entity, but they each had a different approach for managing the team for a successful season. Classical Theorists 1. Fredrick Taylor: He is credited with the scientific management theory, which is a very systematic approach for running a business. People are essentially trained to do one job and one job only. The training is very specific, so the job will be done the exact same way every single time. 2. Henri Fayol: He is credited with the Administrative Management Theory, which is essentially a very clear distinction between management and general workers. Fayol believed that having a clear chain of command, and rules and regulations would help the company to run smoothly and efficiently. 3. Max Weber: Weber is credited with the Bureaucratic Theory of Management. He essentially wanted to make a structure that would increase efficiency, eliminate favoritism, and keep the company running in an orderly manner. He focused on organizing human activity in a manner that achieved his overall goals. 4. Elton Mayo: Mayo is credited with the Behavioral Theory of Management. His theory was based on the Hawthorne experiments, which essentially determined that people tend to behave differently when they know they are being observed. He built his management style around that idea to ensure that work was being done efficiently. Management is different for every organization. There is no single theory that provides the same benefits for a company. Something that works for one type of company may not work for another. Each theory has an effect on the way that individuals work for an organization, so choosing the right management theory is important for overall productivity in a company. A systematic or contingency approach to organization essentially plans for what is supposed to happen, but is prepared when something doesn’t happen the way that it is supposed to. Quantitative systems use mathematics and hard data to determine what needs to happen in a company. They look at multiple data bases to determine what would be most beneficial to the company and the employees working for that company. A systematic approach essentially treats the employees and staff as different parts of a working machine. They see them as different parts that are necessary for the machine to work efficiently as a whole. Each part of the machine is needed so the other parts of the machine can do what they need to. Management Theory Management theory essentially grew from changes in social, economic, and political advancements. People wanted to change the way that factories were run, so the people working in them would have better lives. They wanted the factories to be safer and more efficient, so people could still get the products that they needed from the factories, but the workers weren’t as oppressed so to speak. The changes were a result of classical, behavioral, systematic, and contingency approaches to management. The classical approach focuses on scientific and administrative. The behavioral approach focuses on understanding why people do what they do. The systems approach relies heavily on the data that people find. The Contingency approach focuses on the differences in the variables and the effects they have on people. Organizations often arise from individuals attempting to accomplish a goal, such as owning their own business, or providing a particular product or service to a community. In every organization the people that come in and out take information with them. Some systems are very open, so people can take a lot, while others are closed, so individuals take very little with them. The flow of information within an organization is very important in the success structure. If workers are only given the information the management finds essential for them to know, the management can keep ahead, and keep their employees satisfied with their current positions. Because our world is constantly growing, people need to be better at what they do, so they can stay ahead of the competition. Not only do people need to refine their skills, but they need to make sure they are competent with the language they are using, so they can be understood quickly and accurately. Critical organization becomes a power tool in an organization. If people can stay organized with a plan during a crisis, they will be able to resolve the issue quickly. Interpretive communication helps management and workers understand what is going on in the company and what needs to happen next. Traditional organizations want things to stay the same, and have a hard time adapting to major industry or societal changes. That’s all we covered for the third week of class.
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