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Management Theories in Communication

by: Mariah Tucker

Management Theories in Communication COMM 6120-01

Marketplace > Southern Utah University > Communication > COMM 6120-01 > Management Theories in Communication
Mariah Tucker
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

These notes cover the organizational structure changes over the course of the industrial revolution to today. A few classical theorists are mentioned, and theories that have been crucial in the de...
Organizational Communication
Dr. Arthur Challis
Class Notes
communication, Theory, Management, Organizational sciences, Organizational Psychology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mariah Tucker on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 6120-01 at Southern Utah University taught by Dr. Arthur Challis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Organizational Communication in Communication at Southern Utah University.

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Date Created: 09/10/16
Organizational Communication Dr. Arthur Challis Week 3 Notes Management Theories This class is heavily focused on the different management and organizational theories, so  some of the content may overlap. If you see anything that was mentioned in another set of notes,  it was probably mentioned again in class, and that’s why it was included in the notes.  This week  was a historical perspective, so it will touch on the theories that were introduced in the previous  notes, but include other information as well. The structure of an organizational can be studied as a discipline. Change is an inevitable  factor in organizations, so in organizations there is an occasional transition period between the  changes in structure. It is essentially a time when people decide what changes and what is okay  to leave the same in an organization.  Sometimes changes happen because the organization is  changing or expanding, but sometimes the change arises from the effects of the media.  Sometimes an issue arises and the media covers it in a way that the organization structure needs  to change in order to resolve the issue not only within the company, but in the public’s eyes as  well.  The size of the organization is affected by the amount of time needed to fully transition  with the change, as well as the number of people that will be affected by the change.  Organizational structure changes can be affected by changes in culture, belief systems, and  society norms surrounding the organization. For instance when same sex marriage was legalized  in the United States, organizations such as government agencies, wedding planners, wedding  venue companies, and even religious organizations had to make a decision about how their  specific organization was going to respond to this change in the laws. Some of the organizations needed to change no matter what their specific opinion on the  matter was, such as the governmental organizations. Since it was a passed law, the governmental  organizations needed to adapt their policies to adhere to that law. The planners and the venue  companies could choose to turn away clients wanting to plan a same sex wedding, but they  would risk losing clients in the process, so they had to decide whether or not they were willing to adhere to the changes for their business. Religious organizations also were given the right to  choose whether or not they would allow same sex marriages to be performed within their  buildings. The changes weren’t mandatory, but multiple organizations were affected by this  change in the law. Organizations are a part of everyday life, whether we realize it or not. We have  organizational structure in the way we get ready for the day, the way we interact with different  people, and even the way that we set up our schedules. We generally have a system for getting  ready in the morning, so we are prepared for the different things we need to do throughout the  day. Art said he thought Dream Chaser by Sia gave a good illustration about the way that we  have organization in our everyday interactions with different people, because he believes it is an  accurate reflection of reality. Art touched on the way that organizational discipline has changed over the last 100 years. He said in the early study of organizational structures, individuals could be fired without a cause, and there were no organizations such as Human Resources to help them defend their case. People could essentially be fired for looking at the manager the wrong way, but today there are  protocols designed to make sure that each employee is treated fairly, and that they are actually  being fired for a reason. He shared insights about how the discipline structure of the educational system has  changed over the years. He said when he was in school the instructor had full rights to discipline  students the way that they saw fit. He said they used to break rulers over their desks to scare  them into keeping on task. Since then a number of rules and regulations has changed the way  teachers within a school choose discipline students. If you know anything about the school  system, you probably realize that the student actually has the ultimate power instead of the  teacher, because of the way that the organization structure has had to change over the years to  accommodate societal changes. Henri Fayol is a classical theorist, who is credited with the addition of the Administrative  Management Theory to the research of organizational structure. Fayol wasn’t really concerned  with the people in an organization, but more with the bottom line. He sought initiatives to  provide harmony and cohesion within a workplace, in order to maximize potential gains and  profits. His theory was less concerned with what people knew, and focused more on what they  could actually do. He essentially wanted employees with practical knowledge relating to skills  they possessed instead of knowledge that was just information they knew.  Today we live in an information age, and our time period favors general knowledge more than Fayol did in his time. Practical knowledge is still an important factor in the way our society  runs, but that’s not all that is important to potential employers in this day and age. In the early  civilizations, and basically up into the industrial revolution, a majority of people were farmers,  and it was an agrarian society. Essentially a person would raise crops for themselves and their  family, and they were lucky if they were able to get something extra from what crops they sold  to others. If they didn’t raise enough, or earn enough, they would continue to work until they  were able to meet the requirement they needed to. After the industrial revolution we shifted from an agrarian society, to an industrialized  society. The industrialization provided different organizations to open up factories and stores all  over the country. Even shops and factories that essentially produced or sold the exact same thing  had different structures. Art used one of the students who works with the basketball team, and  discussed the different ways the different coaching staff have managed the team over the years.  They all essentially were working towards the same goal with the same team entity, but they  each had a different approach for managing the team for a successful season. Classical Theorists 1. Fredrick Taylor: He is credited with the scientific management theory, which is a very  systematic approach for running a business. People are essentially trained to do one job  and one job only. The training is very specific, so the job will be done the exact same  way every single time. 2. Henri Fayol: He is credited with the Administrative Management Theory, which is  essentially a very clear distinction between management and general workers. Fayol  believed that having a clear chain of command, and rules and regulations would help the  company to run smoothly and efficiently. 3. Max Weber: Weber is credited with the Bureaucratic Theory of Management. He  essentially wanted to make a structure that would increase efficiency, eliminate  favoritism, and keep the company running in an orderly manner. He focused on  organizing human activity in a manner that achieved his overall goals. 4. Elton Mayo: Mayo is credited with the Behavioral Theory of Management. His theory  was based on the Hawthorne experiments, which essentially determined that people tend  to behave differently when they know they are being observed. He built his management  style around that idea to ensure that work was being done efficiently. Management is different for every organization. There is no single theory that provides the same  benefits for a company. Something that works for one type of company may not work for  another. Each theory has an effect on the way that individuals work for an organization, so  choosing the right management theory is important for overall productivity in a company. A  systematic or contingency approach to organization essentially plans for what is supposed to  happen, but is prepared when something doesn’t happen the way that it is supposed to. Quantitative systems use mathematics and hard data to determine what needs to happen  in a company.  They look at multiple data bases to determine what would be most beneficial to  the company and the employees working for that company. A systematic approach essentially treats the employees and staff as different parts of a  working machine. They see them as different parts that are necessary for the machine to work  efficiently as a whole. Each part of the machine is needed so the other parts of the machine can  do what they need to. Management Theory Management theory essentially grew from changes in social, economic, and political  advancements. People wanted to change the way that factories were run, so the people working  in them would have better lives. They wanted the factories to be safer and more efficient, so  people could still get the products that they needed from the factories, but the workers weren’t as oppressed so to speak. The changes were a result of classical, behavioral, systematic, and  contingency approaches to management.  The classical approach focuses on scientific and administrative. The behavioral approach  focuses on understanding why people do what they do. The systems approach relies heavily on  the data that people find. The Contingency approach focuses on the differences in the variables  and the effects they have on people. Organizations often arise from individuals attempting to accomplish a goal, such as  owning their own business, or providing a particular product or service to a community. In every  organization the people that come in and out take information with them. Some systems are very  open, so people can take a lot, while others are closed, so individuals take very little with them.  The flow of information within an organization is very important in the success structure. If  workers are only given the information the management finds essential for them to know, the  management can keep ahead, and keep their employees satisfied with their current positions. Because our world is constantly growing, people need to be better at what they do, so  they can stay ahead of the competition. Not only do people need to refine their skills, but they  need to make sure they are competent with the language they are using, so they can be  understood quickly and accurately.  Critical organization becomes a power tool in an organization. If people can stay  organized with a plan during a crisis, they will be able to resolve the issue quickly.  Interpretive  communication helps management and workers understand what is going on in the company and  what needs to happen next. Traditional organizations want things to stay the same, and have a  hard time adapting to major industry or societal changes. That’s all we covered for the third week of class.


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