Week 1/Week 2 Notes
Week 1/Week 2 Notes Anthro2010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tara Dixon on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anthro2010 at Georgia State University taught by Bethany Lynn-Turner Livermore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Chapter 2 Evolution Time period of evolutionary thought: 1) Greek philosophers – noted descent w/ modification/adaptation (600-450 B.C.) “change over time” was a big idea 2) Middle Ages – Judeo Christian permanence of species paradigm shift, there was much economic/social strife at the time, the cultural/intellectual capital at the time was Baghdad 3) 18 century – work of scholars (deist) who were not strictly religious was present, descent from common ancestor became an acknowledged idea, examples of people include Robert Hooke who contributed his idea of the cell, Curvier who contributed his extinction idea, Malthus who founded demography 4) Lamarck – had the 1 complete theory of evolution, provided 1 serioust model of physical traits passing from parents to offspring 3 things to know about the world 1. It’s about 4.6 billion years old 2. Surface very different than the past 3. Plants/animals have changed overtime **Systematics – study of biological relationships over time Vernacular vs. Scientific Theory Vernacular - In this definition a scientific theory is an educated guess Scientific - A scientific theory is an ACCUMULATED body of knowledge, scientists are trying to DISPROVE something, continued refinement is a strength of a scientific theory, a scientific theory HAS TO BE TESTABLE Time Period of Evolutionary Thought: 1) Neo-Darwinism (modern synthesis) 1930s – added genetic drift/gene flow as mechanisms of natural selection, solved Darwin’s gaps , solidified definition of evolution as: change in allele frequencies in a population overtime VIA mutation/gene flow/genetic drift/natural selection Idea of Micro vs. Macro Evolution appears during post synthesis Micro – change in allele frequencies over generations without speciation Macro – large scale evolutionary changes resulting in speciation During this time, the conclusion was made that natural selection operates on the genotype but acts on phenotype i.e. masked recessive alleles… etc. ***NOTE populations evolve NOT individuals 2) Mendel’s post-death research – indpt. assortment/particulate inheritance 3) Post-Synthesis – epigenetics characterized this time, epigenetics – study of how environment influences gene expression, and that can be passed on to nd offspring i.e. pregnant woman exposed to 2 hand smoke can have children with lung problems, another theory was punctuated equilibrium – in evolutionary time there were long periods of stasis then rapid micro/macro evolution 4) Darwin/Wallace – some of Darwin’s influences were Lyell, Lyell discovered **uniformitarianism (theory that natural processes happening today are the same as in the past) NOTE: Humans are not featured in On the Origin of Species (1859), humans applied what Darwin said in his to book to the human species, he also never specifically mentioned survival of the fittest in his text, the Galapagos (where Darwin conducted Finch study) is located 600 mi off the coast of Ecuador, Darwin was considered a naturalist during his time, Wallace called out human impact on the environment 100 years before the general public acknowledged this Theory of Natural Selection says this: biological characteristics that enhance survival increase in frequency from generation to generation PLUS: 1. Members of the same species are different (organismic variability) – species are organisms that can interbreed/produce fertile viable offspring 2. Offspring of successful people are normally successful (fitness/adaptation) 3. Competition – organisms compete with 1 another for resources 4. Inheritance of selectively advantageous traits ***NOTE natural selection is 1 of SEVERAL MECHANISMS of evolution 4 Mechanisms of evolution 1. Natural selection 2. Mutation – caused by alteration in single base unit of gene, mutations are ONLY SOURCE of new genetic material, different types i.e. point/chromosomal/neutral Point mutation – result in 1 base nucleotide being inserted/deleted in a gene sequence ex: sickle cell anemia Chromosomal – can be catastrophic/ result in speciation Neutral – an invisible mutation, not expressed in phenotype 3. Gene flow – genes from 1 pool are transferred to another 4. Genetic drift – random changes in allele frequency from 1 generation to another Alternative theories of evolution 1. Intelligent design - Problem with this theory is the question of whether it IS a theory or not, how can we test to see if there is a designer or not? Is there irreducible complexity in the world? - ***NOTE NATURAL SELECTION DID NOT EXPLAIN HOW TRAITS ARE PASSED FROM PARENT TO OFFSPRING Taxonomy/Systematics - Linnaeus provided hierarchical scheme of nomenclature - Primates – a taxonomic level group including humans/apes/monkeys/prosimians - Systematics – the study of taxonomic relationships over time - Taxonomic category vs. Taxonomic level Tax category Tax Level Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Oder Primates Genus Homo - The above is an example of the breakdown of homo sapiens Review of bio concepts - Allele – 1/more alternative forms of a gene - Gene – physical unit of inheritance, a stretch of DNA that determine a trait - GENES ARE LOCATED ON CHROMOSMES - Chromosomes – strands of DNA found in the NUCLEUS of EUKARYOTES that contain hundreds of thousands of genes - Genes are CODED to produce specific PROTEIN - ***most traits do not follow Mendelian inheritance Gregor Mendel – studied pea plants, referred to alleles as factors/particles, noticed offspring had dominant/recessive traits - During the 1880s/1890s the microscopic world became known through microscopes - Hardy Weinberg principle –explains how evolution would look like in a vacuum, used to measure patterns of deviations in actual populations
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