New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

BIO 199 Week 2 Notes

by: Tiffany Matyja

BIO 199 Week 2 Notes BIO 199

Marketplace > University of Tampa > BIO > BIO 199 > BIO 199 Week 2 Notes
Tiffany Matyja
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These are the notes from this week's lecture
General Biology II
Huber, Daniel
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in General Biology II

Popular in BIO

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiffany Matyja on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 199 at University of Tampa taught by Huber, Daniel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in BIO at University of Tampa.


Reviews for BIO 199 Week 2 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/10/16
Saturday, September 10, 2016 Chapter 20: Genes Within Populations BIO 199 - Evolution of Populations individuals do not evolve during their lifetimes • - natural selection acts on individuals, but only populations can evolve (made possible by genetic variability) - individuals cannot evolve over time because their genetic composition doesn't change over time • evolution: the change of the genetic composition of a population over time - due to certain individuals having greater reproductive success • Microevolution: evolution on its smallest scale - requires genetic variation to occur - population genetics: the study of change in the genetic makeup of a population from generation to generation - Darwin studied the consequences of these changes, but didn’t know the underlying mechanism • Gregor Mendel was also doing research completely independent form Darwin - Basic Genetics • Definitions to Know - gene: unit of hereditary information located on a chromosome - locus: location of a gene on a chromosome - alleles: alternate versions of the same gene • assume two alleges per gene - genotype: the complete genetic composition of an individual, population, species, etc - phenotype: physical or physiological characteristics of an individual 1 Saturday, September 10, 2016 - homozygous: both alleles for the gene are the same - both alleles for the gene are different - dominant: characteristic observed in a heterozygote - recessive: characteristic not observed in a heterozygote • Possible Genotypes - homozygous dominant: 2 copies of dominant allele - heterozygous: 1 copy of dominant allele and 1 copy of recessive allele - homozygous recessive: 2 copies of recessive allele • Possible Phenotypes - Depends on inheritance pattern (Complete vs Incomplete Dominance) • Complete: any copy of the dominant allele results in the dominant phenotype - homozygous dominant and heterozygous genotypes would both result in the dominant phenotype • Incomplete: heterozygous individuals have a phenotype intermediate of the dominant and recessive conditions • Hardy-Weinberg Principle - the mathematical way to analyze the process of microevolution - used to: • determine allele, genotype, and phenotype frequencies - important for conservation genetics • investigate inherited diseases - PKU • determine if a population is evolving - How to do it determine allele frequencies (p and q) • • determine genotype frequencies (p , 2pq, q ) 2 2 Saturday, September 10, 2016 • determine inheritance pattern (complete or incomplete dominance) • determine phenotype frequencies - a population is not evolving if it is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium • conditions for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are rarely met for an organism’s entire genome • If p+q =/= 1, the population is evolving, and chances are that some gene in the population is evolving - Determining if evolution is occurring • Compare allele, genotype, and phenotype frequencies at different times • Determine if Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium has been violated - requires independent estimates of p and q • you cannot calculate independent estimates of p and q in examples of complete dominance - Evolution of populations • There are 3 main mechanisms that alter allele frequencies and bring about evolutionary change - Gene Flow • the movement of alleles from one population to another without any “adaptive” process occurring - happens due to the movement of fertile individuals or gametes between populations migrations: highly migratory species can move alleles from one population • to another, resulting in changes in allele frequencies • dispersal mechanisms: the spread of gametes or offspring via random factors (wind, water, other organisms) can move alleles from one population to another • reduces the differences between populations - Genetic Drift 3 Saturday, September 10, 2016 • random fluctuations in allele frequencies which are more likely to occur in small populations - bottleneck effect: if some random environmental event wipes out a portion of a population, the “new” population may have different allele frequencies than the “old” population - founder effect: when a small group of individuals leaves the parent population to start a new population, allele frequencies in the two populations may differ • Darwin’s finches - Natural Selection • modes of natural selection - disruptive selection: the average characteristic of a population is selected against and both extremes are selected for • body color variation: if there are 3 colors of mice, white, brown, and black, and brown is the average, and there was a change in the environment which proved detrimental to the brown mice, but not the white or black, disruptive selection would occur - directional selection: once extreme is selected for, causing the population to shift in that direction • latitudinal variation in body size: polar bears are the largest bear, due to their high latitude - stabilizing selection: the average characteristic is selected for, and both extremes are selected against • human birth weight: before we had the medical technology we have now, babies that had low birth weights often would not survive, and babies that had high birth weights could often not be born. Therefore, only babies with the average weight survived, and eventually reproduced. • natural selection is the only mechanism that results in adaptive evolution - those organisms with the most beneficial adaptations tend to have the highest reproductive success 4 Saturday, September 10, 2016 • adaptive processes increase evolutionary fitness, defined by the combination of survival, mating success, and number of offspring produced - greater fitness results in a greater contribution to the gene pool - sexual selection • evolutionary novelties come about in many stages from previously existing structures - adaption: a characteristic evolved because of its utility in the present environment • a fish’s fins are an adaptation for locomotion - exaptation: a characteristic initially evolved for one purpose and became modifies for another purpose • an anglerfish’s lure exapted from its dorsal fin 5


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.