Notes on Adaptations/Sickle Cell/Primates
Notes on Adaptations/Sickle Cell/Primates Anthro2010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tara Dixon on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anthro2010 at Georgia State University taught by Bethany Lynn-Turner Livermore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
9/12 and 9/14 Notes Limitations of Adaptations/Why Study Primates Clarifications from last class Exaptation – an adaptation once conferred fitness for one thing but now confers fitness for something else ex: feathers, feathers for dinosaurs were adaptive for warmth; feathers for birds are adaptive for flying Preadaptation – the possibility of a characteristic to adopt a new biological function without evolutionary modification, there is a large change in function with little change in structure Limitations of Adaptations Historical/Phylogenetic Constraints – there is an existing set of genes which make up a basic blueprint structure for organisms Genetic variability – very important to maintain, must keep up genetic variability in a species so that members of species can have different abilities/immunities can survive and continue reproducing, genetic variability makes it so that one event/catastrophe is unlikely to kill an entire species Ex: zoos transport animals all the way around the world to maintain genetic variability, note: endangered species are endangered b/c of their LACK of genetic variability Compromising Factors – conflicting selection pressures, all of an organism’s phenotype has to deal with all selective pressures all the time, and selective pressures can change rapidly, note: selective pressures can be changes in an environment; bacteria attacking organisms, anything that affects an organism’s ability to survive/reproduce is a selective pressure Applying Concepts of Adaptation - Pleiotropy – 1 gene does a bunch of different things, it is a team effort among different genes - With pleiotropy there are different solutions to the same problem - NOTE: just b/c a trait exists that does NOT mean it is adaptive, ex: just b/c rape occurs often does not mean is it adaptive in ANY WAY (note: there was a study published by the MIT press stating that rape is an adaptation) Sickle Cell Allele - Sickle cell = recessive allele - Sickle cell anemia – genetic blood disease in which the red blood cells become deformed and sickle shaped decreasing their ability to carry oxygen to tissues - Sickle cell makes a body inhospitable to malaria. Since sickle cell makes blood cells deformed, these deformed blood cells result in a poor host for malaria. If Malaria cannot enter a blood cell to mutate it will die in the plasma of an organism - Sickle cell allele is maintained by stabilizing selection – this means that there is not a shift in the gene pool towards not having the sickle cell allele b/c the allele is twofold. Having the sickle cell allele means you are less likely to die from malaria b/c malaria is less likely to be able to thrive in your body, natural selection increases frequency of sickle cell allele in parts of Africa, stabilizing selection occurs b/c malarial resistance counterbalances lethal sickle cell disease Why Study Primates?? - Living primates share more recent common ancestor - Apes and Humans share >98% of DNA and have shared derived traits - Chimps and Humans share >99% DNA - Humans are taxonomically speaking apes - Lemurs = example of primates - Chordata is the ancestor of the spine - Vertebrates have notochord (spine) and radial symmetry in their bodies, teeth are more likely to fossilize b/c they are enameled in mineral Heterodontic Dental Arcade - Humans have 4 arcades (quadrants/sections) in our teeth - Humans have deciduous teeth (milk teeth) - Organisms have different tooth types - Mammals have forelimbs that cross over, have hind limbs that slope inward from hip, enlarged forebrain - **NOTE “simian” means monkey/apes “rhin” means nose Platyrrhini – new world monkeys, consist of 5 classes of primates found in central/south America, some parts of Mexico Primate Characteristics - Grasping hands/feet - Opposable thumbs - No claws (instead fingernails, fingernails allow for more sensation in the fingertips) - Expanded tactile pads (hands for touch) - Orbital frontation (the way we position ourselves) - Binocular stereoscopic vision - Big reliance on vision in general - Encephalization – more body mass concentrated in head than body - Large proportion of brain tissues associated with memory/thought - Live in groups, variation in group size, sometimes groups are monogamous/polygamous etc. - Agnostic behavior – competitions/factions/hierarchy between members of a group of primates - Parental investment, fewer offspring, helpless infants - Alloparenting – people that are not parents help “parent” children - Primates do NOT have as much instinctual behavior as people believe, most primate behavior is LEARNED.
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