BIO 240 - Intro and Chapter 1 (EXAM 1)
BIO 240 - Intro and Chapter 1 (EXAM 1) BIO 240
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Larson on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 240 at Central Michigan University taught by Dr. Deric Learman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Conservation of Natural Resources in Biology at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
8/23/16 Welcome! BIO240 Conservation of Natural Resources What are the first thoughts that occur in your mind when you see this image? What are the first thoughts that occur in your mind when you see this image? • Fishing • Swimming • Boating • Walking • Hunting • Drinking water • Sense of state pride? 1 8/23/16 So what is this worth to you? A greater understanding of the environment is important if you • Breathe oxygen • Require freshwater • Attain nutrients via plants and animals • Purchase • Cars, phones, energy • Build houses • Hunt, fish, hike, ect… BIO 240: Conservation of Natural resources • We will explore the details of • Natural environments • Limitation of resources • Evaluate the balance between resources utilization and preservation 2 8/23/16 Quick course details • 3 exams and 1 cumulative final (4 total) • Make ups for excused absences, given during finals week • 100 points from Environmental Science • 25 points for in class points • 200 Microtheme assignments • 175 Group Project • Student disabilities To be happy with the grade you earn, you should 1. Attend lectures and participate 2. Complete assignments 3. Study more then the night before the exam 4. Visit office hours 5. Do not wait to get help Chapter 1 Science and Sustainability: An Introduction to Environmental Science Lecture Presentations prepared by Reggie Cobb © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Nash Community College 3 8/23/16 This chapter will help you understand: • The field of environmental science • The importance of natural resources and ecosystem services • Population growth and resource consumption • The scientific method and the process of science • Environmental ethics • Global environmental pressures • Concepts of sustainability and sustainable development © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Our island, Earth • The Earth may seem enormous to us • • • Environment • All the living and nonliving things around us • Environmental science is the study of: • • How the environment affects humans and vice versa © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. We rely on Earth’s natural resources • Natural resources • • Renewable natural resources • Replenished over short periods • Nonrenewable natural resources • © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 4 8/23/16 We rely on ecosystem services • Ecosystem services • Arise from the normal functioning of natural services and allow us to survive • Ecological systems • • Degradation of ecosystem services • Occurs when we exhaust resources, destroy habitat, generate pollution • © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Population growth amplifies our impact • There are now over 7 billion humans • Two major phenomena triggered human population increases • • 10,000 years ago • • mid 1700s • Demand for fossil fuels © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Resource consumption exerts pressures • Ecological footprint • The area of biologically productive land and water to provide resources and dispose/recycle waste • © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 8/23/16 Overshoot • Overshoot • It would take 1.5 years for the planet to regenerate renewable resources people use in 1 year! © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Environmental science can help us avoid past mistakes • Civilizations have fallen when population growth and consumption overwhelm resource availability • Easter Island (The Science Behind the Story) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The nature of environmental science • Environmental scientists • Research and develop solutions to environmental problems • The solutions are applications of environmental science • The study of these applications is also part of environmental science © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 6 8/23/16 Environmental science is interdisciplinary • Environmental science involves input from multiple disciplines • Natural sciences • • Environmental science programs • Social sciences • • Environmental studies © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Environmental science is not the same as environmentalism • Environmental science • • Scientists try to remain objective and free from bias, personal values, preconceptions • Environmentalism • A social movement dedicated to protecting the natural world from undesirable changes due to human actions © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The nature of science • Science • • The body of knowledge arising from the dynamic process of questioning, observation, testing, and discovery • Scientists are motivated to: • • © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7 8/23/16 Applications of science Engineering and technology Policy and management Energy-efficient electric car Prescribed burning restores healthy forests © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The scientific method is a traditional approach • • Observations lead to questions about some phenomenon • • A statement that tries to answer the question • The hypothesis generates predictions • © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The scientific method is a traditional approach (cont’d) • • Tests the validity of a prediction or hypothesis • Involves manipulating variables • • Record data • Either reject the hypothesis or generate a new hypothesis to further test the original hypothesis • © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 8 8/23/16 We test hypotheses in different ways • • A variable is manipulated • • Long-term, large-scale processes can▯t be manipulated • • Compare how variables are expressed in naturally different contexts • • Addresses immense-scale questions (i.e., ecosystems) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The scientific process continues beyond the scientific method • Peer review • Other scientists judge the work • Grants and funding • From private or government sources • Intense competition • Repeatability • Others try to reproduce the results © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Weighing the Issues • Follow the Money • Let us say you are a research scientist wanting to study the impacts of chemicals released into lakes by pulp- and-paper mills. Obtaining research funding has been difficult. Then a large pulp-and-paper company contacts you and offers to fund your research examining how its chemical effluents affect water bodies. • What are the benefits and drawbacks to this offer? • Would you accept the offer? © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 9 8/23/16 In-class activity • Think of an issue in your own life, something you have been debating (think science fair) • Should I buy/use product A or B? • Why does yeast make bread rise? • Use the scientific method to make a hypothesis • Then design an experiment to test that hypothesis © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Environmental ethics • Ethics • © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.tp://www.reachhealth.org.uk/project-services.php Environmental ethics (cont’d) • Ethical standards • • Example: categorical imperative: the ▯Golden Rule,▯ which tells us to treat others as we want to be treated • Example: principle of utility: the utilitarian principle holds that something is right when it produces the greatest practical benefit for the most people © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 10 8/23/16 Environmental ethics pertains to people and the environment • Environmental ethics • • Hard to resolve: it depends on the person▯s ethical standards and domain of ethical concern Should we conserve Is it OK to destroy a resources for future forest to create jobs generations? for people? Should we drive other Is it OK for some species to extinction? communities to be exposed to excess pollution? © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Three ethical perspectives • • • Costs/benefits are measured only by their impact on people • Anything not providing benefit to people has no value © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Three ethical perspectives (cont’d) • • Certain living things have value • • Opposes development that destroys life, even if it increases food production and economic growth © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 11 8/23/16 Three ethical perspectives (cont’d) • • • Values well-being of species, communities, ecosystems • Holistic: it preserves connections between entities © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Conservation and preservation arose with the 20th century • • Nature deserves protection for its own inherent value • We should protect our environment in a pristine, unaltered state John Muir’s (right, with President Roosevelt) ecocentric viewpoint advocated for the preservation of wilderness © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Conservation and preservation arose with the 20th century (cont’d) • • A call to use natural resources wisely • A utilitarian standard that calls for using resources for the greatest good for the most people for the longest time Gifford Pinchot’s anthropocentric viewpoint promoted prudent, efficient, sustainable use of resources © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 12 8/23/16 Aldo Leopold’s land ethic inspires many people • • Healthy ecological systems depend on protecting all parts • We are obligated to treat the land ethically Aldo Leopold’s ecocentric ethical outlook calls for people to view themselves and the land as members of the same community © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The debate between preservation and conservation still exist today © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Environmental justice seeks fair treatment for all people • Environmental justice • Involves the fair treatment of all people with respect to the environment, regardless of income, race, or ethnicity © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 13 8/23/16 Weighing the Issues (in class writing activity) • • Consider the place where you grew up • Where were the factories, waste dumps, and polluting facilities located? • Who lives nearest them in the town or city that hosts your campus? • Do you think the concerns of environmental justice advocates are justified? • If so, what could be done to ensure that poor communities do not suffer more hazards that wealthy ones? © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Sustainability and our future • Sustainability • • Leaving our descendants with a rich, full world by: • Conserving resources for future generations • Developing solutions that work in the long term • Keeping fully functioning ecological systems • © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Population and consumption drive environmental impact • Human population growth amplifies all environmental impacts • • Our consumption of resources has risen even faster • • But rising consumption increases the demands we make on our environment • Increased affluence has not been equal • © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 14 8/23/16 Population and consumption drive environmental impact (cont’d) • Environmental impacts • • Deforestation • Toxic substances • • Depletion of fresh water • Air and water pollution • • Loss of Earth▯s biodiversity © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Sustainable solutions abound • Sustainable solutions must: • • • Many workable solutions exist • Renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuels • Energy-efficiency efforts • • Laws and new technologies to reduce air pollution • • Better waste management to conserve resources • Reduced emissions of greenhouse gases © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Sustainable solutions abound (cont’d) • • Use of resources for economic advancement in a manner that satisfies our current needs • • • Every individual person can help create sustainable solutions in his/her community © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 15 8/23/16 Students are promoting solutions on campus • Campus sustainability • Reducing ecological footprints • Sustainable solutions include: • Running recycling programs • Promoting efficient transportation options • Planting trees and restoring native plants • Growing organic gardens • Fostering sustainable dining halls • Improving energy efficiency and water conservation • Reducing greenhouse emissions • Investing in renewable energy © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Students are promoting solutions on campus (cont’d) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Environmental science prepares you for the future • Environmental science courses • Prepare you for a lifetime in a world of increasing sustainability concerns • Equip you with better understanding of how the world works • Better prepare you for green-collar job opportunities of today and tomorrow • Help you navigate the many sustainable future challenges © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 16 8/23/16 Conclusion • Finding ways to live sustainably on Earth requires: • A solid ethical grounding • Scientific understanding of our natural and social systems • Environmental science helps us: • Understand our relationship with the environment • Informs our attempts to solve and prevent problems • Identifying a problem is the first step in solving it • Environmental science can help find balanced, workable, sustainable solutions to environmental problems © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Define an local or community (where you grew up, or live now) environmental concern • Today’s assignment: research this topic and find out what is known and unknown • Write up a page description • Throughout this course we will work on this topic to search and find possible solutions. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 17
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