Rel 103, Week 3 Notes
Rel 103, Week 3 Notes REL 103
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Collin Wilbanks on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to REL 103 at University of Mississippi taught by Mary F Thurlkill in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Intro to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam in Religion at University of Mississippi.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
7 September 2016 What is Christian scripture and how is it canonized? Old Testament based on Septuagint (the Greek translation of the TaNaKh, circa 200 CE) Jews began to put the scriptures they had been writing down together, but as they assimilated with Roman culture, the main language became Greek instead of Hebrew. These scriptures were then translated into Greek. cut out some of the books from the Septuagint because they didn’t consider these books to be authoritative anymore (keep in mind, they once were considered authoritative and inspirational. They decided these books were not after a certain amount of time and were instead more historical than divine). some bibles, like the Catholic bible or study bibles, contain the books that the Jews cut out. This is called the Apocrypha — collection of books considered relevant and sacred to the Holy Bible including books cut out (book of Maccabees, book of Enoch, etc.) New Testament Mark (60/70s CE) Matthew, Luke, “Q” (80s CE) Q = another text that scholars assume Matthew and Luke drew from, but this text did not survive. John (90s CE) Matthew, Mark, Luke called synoptic gospels, they tell of Jesus’ life. John much more theological, describe Jesus as God. these 4 all included in all bibles, hundreds of other gospels were in circulation but these were considered the most sacred. some believe the gospels were written long after Jesus’ life and then the followers of Jesus’ disciples put the disciples’ names on the letters to give them authority. Pauline Epistles Paul only knew Jesus from a miraculous version and converts to Christianity. Never met Jesus. 7 undisputed (40-65 CE) 7 books that were deﬁnitely attributed to Paul. Tend to equate male and women more equally in Jesus’ eyes 6 Pseudo-Pauline (including Ephesians, Colossians, 2 Thessalonians, 1&2 Timothy, Titus) thought to be written by Paul’s students who claimed Paul’s authorship more about church structure, who can have authoritative positions in the church ‘Other' e.g. Revelation, Hebrews Hebrews, for example, not a letter to a church or a gospel Diﬀerent collections? Catholic includes more books in the Old Testament Protestant does not include Apocrypha Orthodox has same books as Catholic Mormon Bible God continues to reveal things to a man named Joseph Smith in the 19th century, and that those scriptures revealed to him are seen as sacred by Mormons. Controversies around canonization? Some competition tests/Gospels Gospel of Thomas focuses a lot on the Holy Spirit says that Jesus lived, was divine, was God, and taught not a narrative like Matthew, Mark, and Luke — just a collection of Jesus’ teachings gnostics, such as Thomas, saw ﬂesh and matter as evil and only the Spirit as divine and pure. They rejected the idea that God would put on human ﬂesh because ﬂesh is sinful thought Jesus’ ﬂesh only LOOKED like ﬂesh and that it was not real ﬂesh. Therefore, Jesus was not ACTUALLY cruciﬁed, it was God’s way of showing His followers the importance of sacriﬁce and that their sins had been covered forever. This is a big reason this gospel didn’t make it into the Bible. Jesus was made to LOOK like he died, but he didn’t actually die, because there was no real ﬂesh. It was all “tricks of the eye" Infancy Gospel of Thomas gospel of Jesus as a 5 year old child not gnostic, not the idea that ﬂesh is bad, but this book was for Christians curious of their God coming into ﬂesh and being a child Bishops and cities Bishops were involved in the decision of what books were to be canonized Gospel of Thomas and Gospel of John came to a very close decision Final list: 387 CE controversy with Marcion Jesus died around 30 CE, took over 300 years to ﬁgure out which books would be in the bible 9 September 2016 Controversies around canonization? controversy with Marcion gnostic. Believed that only the New Testament should be in the bible because the God of the Old Testament isn’t the God we know today, who has been revealed through Jesus. What is the context? Something old: Jewish Messiah (Isaiah 53; 61:1-2) Jesus dies before New Kingdom? 70 CE temple destroyed Something new: ‘Universal' who is Jesus? someone who is universal, not only taught to Jews but Jesus places emphasis on both Jews and Gentiles Kingdom that Jesus ushers in is an INNER kingdom — Holy Spirit hellenistic (Greek) audience How do we know what it means? 4 diﬀerent “forms of interpretation" Literal exactly what it says is exactly what it means Moral stories and teachings are all moral/ethical lessons Allegorical passages symbolic of larger theological truth Anagogical/eschatological passages tell us something about the end times Example: John 11.35, “Jesus Wept.” Literal: Jesus shed tears as he approached the tomb of Lazarus, his friend. Moral: Jesus teaches a moral lesson, that all Christians should ‘weep’ with compassion. Allegorical: Just as Jesus weeps for Lazarus, God weeps/mourns for humanity when lost. Anagogical: There will be much weeping at the End Times for those who don’t know God.
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