History 1311-002 Chapter 1 Notes: A New World
History 1311-002 Chapter 1 Notes: A New World 1311-002
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zain Notetaker on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1311-002 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Rufki Salihi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see U.S History to 1865 in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Chapter One: A New World? 29 of August, 2016 [A New World] Settling of Americas The actual settling of the Americas took between 15,000 and 60,000 years. The various settlers in America originated from all across the globe and hence spoke a variety of languages and lived in different, distinct societies. Most of the local population were hunters and fishermen, and this is how they gained their food and resources. The earliest settlers of the Americas came from the Bering Strait via a land bridge that does not currently exist to this day. The settling took such a broad and long time period due to the fact that the voyage from Europe and the sort to the Americas was resource demanding as well as the communications of the time were not nearly as widespread and connected as they are today. I.E. the Social and Physical Infrastructure. Indian Societies One of the Societies are the Aztecs who lived in what is now Mexico. Mu o Had massive and complex cities such as Tenochtitlan. Had canals running through and around it. Population of 250,000 Another in current day Peru, the Incas were another major society of native Americans that we are prevalent today through their architecture. o Had miles of roads running in and between cities o Over 12 million people living in the societies Highly Sophisticated life consisting of organization, politics, trade and amenities for life. North America Much less developed societies than those of the Incas and Aztecs for example. The general population were illiterate and lacked any major literary elements in society. Tools were not as advanced and metal tools were nonexistent in this time period of North America. Although the above things were major innovations that the people in North America lacked, they did however, possess farming techniques, fishing techniques, and political and religious structure. Mound Builders o Mounds built on a large bluff facing the Mississippi River. o Built before the Egyptian pyramids. Poverty Point o A large commercial and government center located in southern central part of what is now the U.S. Cahokia o Lived near present day St. Louise. o Large housing settlement, housing anywhere from 10,000 and 30,000 people. o In this era that was a huge settlement in comparison. o It would take New York and Philadelphia till the 1800s to build a structure that would be larger. Western Indians o Located in what is now the state of Arizona. o Hopi and Zuni tribes settled together in a large central city. o Large multiple family housing buildings called Pueblo Bonita were made. o Each pueblo Bonita could be five stories tall and have around 600 rooms. o The city would have large infrastructure and be a center of trade between the people. o Eventually split up to find more resources into North and South, referred to as pueblo Indians by Europeans due to their tendency to build small villages as they traveled. North-Eastern America Indians o The region which they lived in expanded from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada. o Fishing and Hunting were the primary ‘job’ of the people. o Tribes were not united and often got into tribal wars and fights. o Although fighting was often, there were also instances of alliances and diplomacy between tribes. South-Eastern America Indians o The tribes living in this area are more well-known and are the Choctaw, Cherokee, and Chickasaw tribes o The three large tribes would unite and form alliances when it was in their best interests to protect each other and other threats or instances where peace was required. o In New York/Pennsylvania five Iroquois peoples formed the Great League of Peace. Culture and Religion The native people would perform religious ceremonies related to the two main sources of resources, fishing and hunting. The Native Americans did in fact have a form of religion and believed in sacred spirits in animals, trees, water, and other aspects of nature. In these societies of Native Americans, the highest leadership position was held by religious leaders. The native’s belief on the aspect of land was that there were no sense of actual ownership and the use of the land was communal. o This was to the benefit of the European settlers as it made taking over the land an easier task. Social status in the native societies was formed by trading of goods, the more you shared, the greater your social standing. Genders were separated by the type of work but not by equality. The society itself was matrilineal. o This means that one would identify their lineage through the mothers. European Values As opposed to the natives in America, the Europeans had inequality in the gender relations of men and women. This emphasized the strict, hierarchical structure to the society in Europe, that was mostly brought over to the Americas. Men were the heads of the household and held power over the women and children in society. There were limited freedoms, as a uniform religion was the policy as well as the unequal balance of power in households. Christian liberty o Must embrace the teachings of Christ and live free of sin o No religious toleration for any other belief was held o Religious uniformity in European countries, each country was mostly strict on which religion its inhabitants could have. Columbian Exchange Americas Europe •Maize •Wheat •Potatoes •Sugar •Sweet Potatoes •Bananas •Beans •Rice •Peanuts •Grapes (Wine) •Squashes •Dandelions •Pumpkins •Horses •Tomatoes •Pigs •Chili Pepper •Cattle •Avocados •Salts •Pineapples •Sheep •Cocoa •Chickens •Quinine (medicine) •Smallpox •Measles •Typhus 31 of August, 2016 [The Expansion of Europe] The Old World Africa, Europe, and Asia Located in Europe (Italy), Venice and Genoa were very rich city states that gained their wealth through frequent trading. Motivations The Europeans wanted to find a new sea route to India so that they would not have to go through the middle east as a middle man in trade. o This was because it was less profitable as well as the fact that the middle eastern people held a different religious belief than the European’s Trade with India as well as China, due to many products the Europeans wanted, coming from China o Silk, Compass, Spices, Gunpowder, Porcelain, Tea New innovations in shipping made it easier than previously. o Compass, Caravele Caravele was a more mobile, and much more wind sturdy ship. This ship could also go into shallow waters, making it better in practically every situation that previous sea faring creations. Chinese Empire 1405-1433 o Very rich empire mostly focused on trading and ruling over the land. o Admiral Zheng conducted huge expeditions into the Indian Ocean. o Explored the coast of East Africa o He, however, did not explore further west, otherwise he may have gone all the way to the Americas. 1433 o China started to become more self-isolated. o After 1433 ceased supporting and financing long distance expeditions like those of Admiral Zheng. Portugal Portugal had dabbled in colonization before the discovery of the new world and had already colonized Madeira and the Canary Islands near Portugal itself. Established plantations, however unlike the plantations in the new world later to be worked on by slaves taken from Africa, these plantations were worked by the local inhabitants of the colonized land. In 1485 Portugal explorers had reached Benin (present day edge of Nigeria) Portugal used their colonies to establish trading routes o Valuable works of art, bronze statues, and more sophisticated traders worked on these routes, generating large quantities of profit for Portugal. The profits and benefits Portugal was gaining from this, inspired other European nations to follow suit. o The invention of the printing press made news of the trade and profits from Portuguese networks reached the upper class all over Europe. Only the upper class because they were literate and could afford the luxuries such as news off of a printing press during this time. Africa Slavery before European settlements took slaves from Africa. o Form of labor, among other ways of labor being done o Slaves consisted of criminals, debtors, and war captives o The Slaves worked within households and not on large plantations such as later in the Americas o Had rights to marry free people, own property o If enough money was saved up they could afford to buy their freedom o The slavery was a sort of crime punishment and did not last in perpetuity Slavery after European settlements took slaves from Africa. o Accelerated the slave trade within Africa to exponential proportions o Became a crucial form of labor and settlements would not be able to function without it o In the span of 50 years between 1450-1500, more than 100,000 slaves were sent to Portugal and Spain Further Expansion of Portugal In 1847 Bartholomew Dias reaches the Cape of Good Hope (the southern tip of the African continent) In 1849 Vasco de Gama reaches India. He was the first person to successfully do this from Europe. Portugal established trading posts in India, China, and Indonesia. Although only around 1 million people in population, through exploration, Portugal successfully created a vast trading empire across the old world benefiting in huge profits. Columbus 1492 Columbus reaches Hispaniola travelling through the Canary Islands and the Bahamas in 1492. o Hispaniola is modern day Dominican Republic and Haiti Columbus himself was a merchant from Genoa, He convinced the King and Queen to fund his ventures to reach India by circling the globe. (European knowledge of the new world was not in existence at this point in time) After returning to Europe, Columbus headed back in 1493 with 1,000 men and established the settlement by the name of La Isabella. o La Isabella didn’t have the supplies for the new land and the ultimately failed. Columbus died with the idea that he was in India, and did not realize he had landed on the Americas. The main goal for this venture was to gain glory and gold, and then later to convert the natives to Christianity. In 1502 Nicholas de Ovando reached present day Florida and established the first permanent settlement of the Spanish Empire Queen Isabella’s Spanish empire strengthened and enlarged from the addition of a permanent settlement in the new world. New rulings in Spain forces Muslims in the country to either convert to Christianity or leave. Vespucci and Others In 1497 John Cabot, also a merchant from Genoa, discovers and claims Newfoundland In 1499-1502 Amerigo Vespucci sails across the coast of South America and recognizes that it is an entirely new continent. o The Americas are named after him, Amerigo = America In 1500 Pedro Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal, adding to the already expansive trading network of Portugal’s In 1513 Vasco Nunez de Balboa is the first European to go on the other side of the Americas and see the Pacific Ocean. In 1519-1522 Ferdinand Magellan is the first person to completely sail around the entire globe. Spain Advances In 1519 Hernan Cortes arrives in Tenochtitlan, the seat of the Aztec Empire. Aztecs were a violent warrior society and dominated other nearby people, tribes, and societies around them. o This made most neighboring communities dislike the Aztecs. Cortez and his small army subdues the Aztecs o This was because neighboring tribes and communities, the Europeans advanced technology, and disease helped them defeat the powerful Aztec empire. In 1532 Francisco Pizaro conquers the Inca Kingdom in Peru. The multiple gold and silver mines produced all of the precious metals to be delivered back to the Spanish Crown. Demographic Catastrophe ensues o The heavy mining of substances, the enslavement of local people, and the killing off of the rest whether on purpose or by disease all contributed to this. In this 16 century world, Mexico lost 90% of its entire population over a short expanse of years meaning 18 million of the 20 million inhabitants died. 2 of September, 2016 [Spain, France, and Dutch Empires] Spanish Empire Government o Power flows out from the King of Spain directly, unlike a democracy like we have in America. o The Catholic Church had a heavy influence on the government decisions and could be considered to have almost equal, or in some cases, greater power than the King. o Officials in the Americas came from Spain and were appointed directly by the King as opposed to the Criollos in the Americas. Criollos were American born people of Spanish decent. Colonists o Most colonies were mainly for the purpose of mining gold and silver for the crown. o The mines were worked by the Native Americans of and near the land of the settlements. o Most of the settlers from Spain came to the Americas in hopes to gain a higher position through the easier social mobility in the colonies than on the mainland. o No matter how many colonists came they had a much larger number of Native Americans in the colonies working. o Originally around 225,000-250,000 settlers came from Spain but by the mid- 1600s over 750,000 settlers had come over to the new world. Conquest Justifications To justify the Spanish claim to land that was already inhabited by Native Americans, they held the beliefs that they had cultural superiority, a missionary zeal to convert natives to Christianity, and violence The country still had a element of building missionaries for the purpose of conversion during the holy war against Islam around 1492. This was renewed when the protestant reformation occurred from Martin Luther King in the 16 century. The so called ‘souls to be saved’ were mainly used as a labor force in the gold and silver mines. Bartolome de Las Casas wrote about the methods of injustice and cruelty the Spanish rule treated the Native Americans with. o This caused the new laws to be passed in 1542, outlawing the enslavement of Native Americans The Black Legend The Black Legend was a work of art put forth by Las Casas. This showed the injustice of the Spanish settlements and coined them as a brutal colonizer. This helped the cause and allowed for Native Americans to be able to own land and work it, however having to still pay taxes which led to the Spanish Crown. Beyond South America Spanish Explorers finally migrated into what is today the U.S. in search of more gold. o The first of these explorers was Juan Ponce De Leon in Florida in 1513 Large Spanish expeditions were used to explore and they had now traveled between Florida, The Gulf of Mexico, and the southwest region of the present day U.S. in the 1520-1540s These Expeditions, mainly Hernando de Soto’s, brutalized Indians and spread deadly diseases, dealing large damage to the Native American population in these locations. This was the start of the large Spanish empire having colonies and trading posts globally located. Florida and the Southwest Spanish Florida o First present day U.S. area colonized by Spain o Was a militaristic city and had forts as early as 1560 to protect Spanish treasure from pirate fleets. o St. Augustine, the name of the city, is the oldest city located in the U.S. that has remained a city. o Spanish missionaries were built to convert Native Americans; however, attempts were not very successful. o In 1763 Spanish Florida had only 4,000 of its residents being of European decent. Spain in the Southwest o Juan de Onate led groups of settlers into present day New Mexico in 1598 o Onate destroyed Acoma in his ventures. Acoma was a centuries old Native American city. He did this in a response to an attack and retaliated by burning the city down. o Pueblo Revolt In 1680 the Pueblo Indians, led by a native named Pope, revolted against the Spanish colonists in New Mexico for the constant forced labor and forced conversions to Christianity. France French colonization o The main goal, as with the Spanish was to find gold, however also they were more interested in finding the Northwest Passage, but instead found the North American Continent. o Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec in 1608 and other explorers that followed after claimed the entire Mississippi valley for France This Mississippi valley land would later be part of the land sold in the Louisiana Purchase o Comparatively, only a few settlers can to New France o Most of these were engages (indentured servants) who later returned home when their contracts expired. o The entire New France in 1700 consisted of only 19,000 people. New France and Native Americans o Since there were so few French men in the new world, friendly relations with the Native American tribes were essential. o The French prided themselves on adopting a much more humane policy towards the Native Americans as opposed to Spain. o Contact with the natives, however, still brought disease and extensive fur trading depleted the native animal population. o Metis were a large portion of the French settlements and were children of a French man and a Native American woman. Dutch Henry Hudson sailed into the New York harbor and claimed the area for the Netherlands. o Hudson was a British citizen who worked under hire for the Netherlands Dutch traders established Fort Orange (near modern Albany) in 1614. The Dutch West India Company settled colonists on Manhattan Island in 1626 after the creation of their company. th The Netherlands dominated international commerce in the early 17 century. New Netherlands was a military post, and by nature was not governed democratically, yet, its citizens held multiple rights. Slaves had half freedom as they could also own land to support their families. Women had more rights and independence as compared to other European nations. o They could go to court, borrow money, and own property. Due to their international commerce, the Dutch empire was relatively small, yet still held a major position in world actions around this time period. Diversity and Tradition New Netherlands was a remarkably diverse colony with around 18 different languages spoken. The Dutch were more tolerant of other religions. There was an official religion which was the Dutch Reformed Church, but no one was required to be a member of this church. Governor Petrus Stuyvesant denied open practice of other faiths in public. o He wanted to make an official uniform religion but traders, who dominated the Dutch commerce demanded freedom of religion and instead it was made so that any religion could be practiced as long as in the privacy of one’s own home Due to this religious tolerance no one was ever executed or persecuted for practicing a separate religion. In order to have more settlers come cheap livestock and some land after 6 years of labor were promised to attract settlers. Large estates were offered to those who agreed to transport tenants for agriculture labor. o This was mostly rich patrons and shareholders in the Dutch Empire New Netherlands came to trade and not conquer and were determined to be much more human to the Native Americans than both the French and Spanish, but due to them being in the land originally inhabited by natives, conflict could not be completely avoided although it was much less than either two of the other major European powers during this time.
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