PSY 321 Chapters 3& 4: Social Cognition and Perception
PSY 321 Chapters 3& 4: Social Cognition and Perception Psy 321
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 321 at University of Mississippi taught by Carrie Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at University of Mississippi.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
PSY 321: Social Psychology Chapter 3 & 4: Social Cognition and Perception I. Collecting Social Information a. First Impressions…judging a book by its cover i. Are we supposed to do this? ii. If we take our time, do we reach different conclusions about people? 1. Willis and Todorov (2006) a. There are four groups of participants who are asked to look at the same photos i. Each group was varied in how much time they had to look at each photo 1. Some groups had a few seconds to look at the photos whereas other groups had an unlimited amount of time to look at the photos ii. Then the judgments of the constrained and unconstrained groups by measuring trustworthiness and likeability 1. It doesn’t matter how long we take to look at a picture to determine trustworthiness or likeability iii. Speedy Impressions 1. Does attractiveness bias us? a. Whatisbeautifulisgood bias i. We are not taught this and evidence shows this bias is present in four month old infants ii. This is the tendency to connect attractiveness with other positive traits 2. Halo effect a. The minute I think you have one positive trait chances are I think you have other positive traits as well 3. Causal Inference/ Making attributions a. Attribution: This is an answer to the question why in terms of human behavior b. Causal Inference: What do you infer the cause of someone’s behavior to be? c. Why do we make attributions? i. They help us predict the future ii. They help us to determine our future behavior iii. Basic Distinction 1. Internal/ Dispositional a. Source of behavior is internal to you i. Behavior was caused by you as a person ii. Something in you caused your behavior 2. External/ Situational a. Source of behavior is external to you II. Making Attributions a. Covariation Model – Kelly (1967) i. Imagine you see one person yelling at another person 1. How do we explain this behavior? 2. 3 Dimensions a. Consistency i. Is this a frequently occurring situation? ii. Does it happen consistently? iii. High v. Low consistently 1. High: This behavior happens all the time 2. Low: This behavior does not happen often b. Distinctiveness i. Is there something distinct or unique about this situation? c. Consensus i. Do other people do the same thing in the same situation? 1. Is there consensus about how to handle that situation? a. High: Everyone does it b. Low: No one does it ii. What does low consistency mean? 1. If it does not happen often then the causes are external/ situational iii. High consistency? 1. If it is coupled with high distinctiveness and high consensus then the problem is external 2. If it is coupled with low distinctiveness and low consensus then the problem is internal III. Collecting Social Information a. Correspondent Inference Theory (Jones and Davis, 1965) i. We are trying to figure out if behavior corresponds to your personality 1. Can we infer something about you based on your behavior ii. Assumptions 1. People are seeking to make an internal attribution 2. We like internal attributions iii. Basis for making attributions 1. Did the person have a choice? 2. Was the behavior expected/ typical? 3. What were the outcomes?
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