PSY 321 Chapters 3 & 4: Social Cognition and Perception
PSY 321 Chapters 3 & 4: Social Cognition and Perception Psy 321
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 321 at University of Mississippi taught by Carrie Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at University of Mississippi.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
PSY 321: Social Psychology Chapter 3 &4: Social Cognition and Perception (cont’d) I. Biases in attributions a. We often look for shortcuts in making attributions – Why? b. Our biases i. Correspondence bias 1. Fundamental Attribution Error 2. Generally speaking we are prone to make internal attributions 3. This is our tendency to be biased and think that your behavior corresponds to your personality a. We jump to internal attributions 4. Modern example a. Rosa Parks Bus Tribute i. In order to honor Rosa Parks, the front seat of buses were reserved for her 1. There was a sign posted on all buses and no one was allowed to sit in those seats 2. Some people did anyway a. Other people automatically made internal attributions and saw those who sat in the seats as racists b. However the people who sat in the seats did not see the sign and did not sit there out of spite 5. Classic study – Jones and Harris (1967) a. Students read either a proCastro or antiCastro essay i. One group was told that the author picked which essay to write while the other group was told that the author had no choice and were assigned a side 1. Many students made internal attributions about the authors a. Even if the author had no choice and was told to write a proCastro essay, the students still felt that the author was proCastro even if he didn’t have a choice b. People assume internal attributions 6. Why do we make this error? a. When we watch a scene unfold the person is gathering our attention i. The person becomes our focal point b. Internal attributions give us a better sense of control of predictability c. External attributions leave a person open to ambiguity 7. TwoStep Attribution Process a. First step: Make an internal attribution b. Second step: If you have time, energy, and motivation, you move to step 2 and make a situational correction II. Differences in correspondence bias a. Correspondence bias i. Cultural differences in this bias 1. Western v. Eastern a. Western cultures i. Place a lot of emphasis on the individual 1. Ex: “Pull yourself up by your bootstraps” b. Eastern cultures i. Collectivistic 1. Great focus on the group, the community c. Why the cultural differences i. Attentional differences (Norenzayan & Nisbett, 2000) 1. Participants were asked to describe a picture a. Eastern participants are better at remembering other details while Western participants only focused on what was central to the picture and considered it the most important thing ii. Situational correction 1. Eastern participants were more likely to engage in this correction d. But…there isn’t always a difference i. Choi & Nisbett (1998) 1. They had two groups. One had Western participants while the other had Eastern participants a. First, they made the participants go through the pro and anti Castro essay experiment i. There was no difference between the groups b. Secondly, they made the participants write an essay on something that they did not choose i. Biases were only lowered in Eastern participants ii. Miller (1984) 1. Does being in a culture longer change your bias? a. He had a group of children, teens, and adults (two groups of each age from both Western and Eastern cultures) b. Each group was told stories and were asked to make attributions i. The longer we are a member of a culture the more we start to do what our culture expects ii. Eastern participants made more external attributes as they grew older iii. They looked at the situation like everyone else III. Biases in attributions a. ActorObserver Bias i. When it is you observing someone else’s behavior you make internal attributions ii. When you are the actor of your own behavior you make external attributions 1. We pay more attention to the situation 2. We get more environmental information 3. We think of our own behavior as flexible and unstable but we expect other people to be consistent and stable
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