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PSY 321 Chapters 3 & 4: Social Cognition and Perception

by: Stephanie

PSY 321 Chapters 3 & 4: Social Cognition and Perception Psy 321

Marketplace > University of Mississippi > Psychology > Psy 321 > PSY 321 Chapters 3 4 Social Cognition and Perception
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These notes cover the last lecture on social cognition and perception.
Social Psychology
Carrie Smith
Class Notes
PSY321, Psychology, social, Lecture Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 321 at University of Mississippi taught by Carrie Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at University of Mississippi.


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Date Created: 09/10/16
PSY 321:  Social Psychology Chapter 3 &4:  Social Cognition and Perception (cont’d) I. Biases in attributions a. We often look for shortcuts in making attributions – Why?  b. Our biases i. Correspondence bias 1. Fundamental Attribution Error 2. Generally speaking we are prone to make internal attributions 3. This is our tendency to be biased and think that your behavior  corresponds to your personality a. We jump to internal attributions 4. Modern example a. Rosa Parks Bus Tribute i. In order to honor Rosa Parks, the front seat of buses were reserved for her 1. There was a sign posted on all buses and no  one was allowed to sit in those seats 2. Some people did anyway a. Other people automatically made  internal attributions and saw those  who sat in the seats as racists b. However the people who sat in the  seats did not see the sign and did not  sit there out of spite 5. Classic study – Jones and Harris (1967) a. Students read either a pro­Castro or anti­Castro essay i. One group was told that the author picked which  essay to write while the other group was told that  the author had no choice and were assigned a side 1. Many students made internal attributions  about the authors  a. Even if the author had no choice and  was told to write a pro­Castro essay,  the students still felt that the author  was pro­Castro even if he didn’t  have a choice b. People assume internal attributions  6. Why do we make this error? a. When we watch a scene unfold the person is gathering our  attention i. The person becomes our focal point b. Internal attributions give us a better sense of control of  predictability c. External attributions leave a person open to ambiguity  7. Two­Step Attribution Process a. First step:  Make an internal attribution b. Second step:  If you have time, energy, and motivation, you move to step 2 and make a situational correction II. Differences in correspondence bias a. Correspondence bias i. Cultural differences in this bias 1. Western v. Eastern a. Western cultures i. Place a lot of emphasis on the individual 1. Ex:  “Pull yourself up by your bootstraps” b. Eastern cultures i. Collectivistic 1. Great focus on the group, the community c. Why the cultural differences i. Attentional differences (Norenzayan & Nisbett,  2000) 1. Participants were asked to describe a picture a. Eastern participants are better at  remembering other details while  Western participants only focused on what was central to the picture and  considered it the most important  thing  ii. Situational correction 1. Eastern participants were more likely to  engage in this correction d. But…there isn’t always a difference i. Choi & Nisbett (1998) 1. They had two groups.  One had Western  participants while the other had Eastern  participants a. First, they made the participants go  through the pro and anti­ Castro  essay experiment i. There was no difference  between the groups b. Secondly, they made the participants  write an essay on something that  they did not choose i. Biases were only lowered in  Eastern participants ii. Miller (1984) 1. Does being in a culture longer change your  bias? a. He had a group of children, teens,  and adults (two groups of each age  from both Western and Eastern  cultures) b. Each group was told stories and were asked to make attributions i. The longer we are a member  of a culture the more we start  to do what our culture  expects ii. Eastern participants made  more external attributes as  they grew older iii. They looked at the situation  like everyone else III. Biases in attributions a. Actor­Observer Bias i. When it is you observing someone else’s behavior you make internal  attributions  ii. When you are the actor of your own behavior you make external  attributions 1. We pay more attention to the situation 2. We get more environmental information 3. We think of our own behavior as flexible and unstable but we  expect other people to be consistent and stable  


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