BSC 1005 Ch. 2 Part 2
BSC 1005 Ch. 2 Part 2 BSC 1005
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cristina Rodriguez on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 1005 at Florida Atlantic University taught by Diane Lowell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 98 views.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Definition Review Matter – anything that takes up space and has mass Elements – substances that cannot be chemically broken down Atom the smallest unit of an element that still retains the property of that element Atomic Number – number of protons Mass Number – number of proton AND neutrons Covalent Bonds – the sharing of a pair of electrons between two atoms Organic Molecules – a molecule that has a carbon based backbone and has at least one CH bond Inorganic Molecules – a molecule that lacks a carbon based backbone and does not have a CH bond Review All living things have 5 common traits Growth Reproduction Homeostasis Respond to stimuli Use energy Atoms are made up of electrons, protons, and neutrons Ion is a charged atom that has gained or lost an electron Carbon is a key component of the molecules of living organisms Definitions Macromolecules – large organic molecules composed of monomers Polymer Chains – monomers linked together Carbohydrates made up of sugar monomers Disaccharide / Polysaccharide synthesis – combining sugars with release of H2O Proteins – amino acid monomers Primary Structure – sequence off amino acids Nucleic Acids – nucleotide monomers Fatty Acids – long hydrocarbon chains Cell – basic structural unit of life and is a waterfilled sac bounded by a cell membrane Intra Cellular – inside the cell Extra Cellular – outside the cell Cohesion – water molecules clinging together Adhesion – water molecules clinging to the surface Universal Solvent – a substance that can dissolve other substances Solutes – life’s dissolved molecules pH – the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution Buffer – weak acid or base Important Information 4 types of complex macromolecules make up living things Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids Simple sugars are monosaccharides Polysaccharides are groups of monosaccharides Carbohydrates are used to store and release energy and to provide structural support Carbohydrates are polymers There are 20 different types of amino acids Amino acids differ in its R group Proteins are polypeptides Amino acids are covalently liked by peptide bonds The primary structure of an amino acid determines the folding of the protein Structure Example Primary – old school ream of film Secondary and old house phone cable Tertiary – a paper fan Quaternary – tangled head phones DNA is a double strand helical shape and is string and contains AGCT and deoxyribose RNA is a single strand and contains AGCU and ribose Nucleotides can be used as “energy currency” and are made up of sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen base (Ex. ATP) Lipids are hydrophobic There are two types of fat Saturated (EX. Butter) Unsaturated (olive oil) Fatty acids are very hydrophobic and are used for energy storage because they have very high energy and very long term storage A phospholipid looks like the lollypop with two sticks and have both a hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic heads Phospholipids define cell boundaries Cells are bounded by a cell membrane and have double layer to separate the contents of a cell from its surroundings All of life’s chemical reactions take place in water Water is a polar molecule because its electrons are not shared equally between atoms It also has a partial negative charge at one end and a partial positive charge at the other Hydrogen bonds (an electrostatic attraction) form with both water and other molecules pH ranges from 0 – 14 where 0 is the most acidic and 14 is the most basic Acids have higher concentration of hydrogen and a pH closer to 0 Bases have a lower concentration of hydrogen ions and a pH closer to 14