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Intro to IR349 Notes

by: Leigh Generous

Intro to IR349 Notes IR349

Leigh Generous
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Notes from first class and first lecture
International Relations Prior to 1949
Class Notes
international relations




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leigh Generous on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to IR349 at Boston University taught by Keylor in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see International Relations Prior to 1949 in INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS at Boston University.



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Date Created: 09/10/16
Intro to IR 349: History of International Relations 1900­1945  09/06/16 Analytical Paper: due Nov 17 Select a document (from reading or elsewhere) and analyze/assess it  Become scholar on document and present POV in my voice Some Definitions and Observations  History not political science course 1900­1945  “Nation states”   the world is dominated by several nations (Great Powers) / concept of military,  economic, soft powers  Themes We’ll deal with from 1900­1945  Europeanization of the world at the beginning of the 20  Century  o Domination of colonial powers o Africa is comprised of colonial empires EXCEPT:  Liberia: free African slaves and abolitionists   Ancient empire of Ethiopia retains independence – defeats Italian power o Highpoint of European Expansion  The Hope: Peace and Prosperity o Economic prosperity (Industrial Revolution) o Peace…war weary “a thing of the past” o World will create institutions of global governments / global international  community o Swedish inventor of dynamite endows prize to promote world peace (1896)  Ralph Bunch first African recipient  o Pierre de Coubertin launches peaceful alternative to war (1896)   Founder of modern Olympic Games // rivalry without war  o Russian Tsar summons peace conference to promote global governance – Hague  Peace Conference (1899)  Countries agree to pass regulations to govern international relations   Permanent Court of Arbitration  o Andrew Carnegie finances a think tank to promote world peace (1910)  Carnegie Endowment for International Peace o Norman Angell declares war obsolete in “The Grand Illusion” (1910)  Intricate economic interconnections make war impossible   The Reality: War, Depression, Genocide o WWI & WWII  o Catastrophic death tolls  o End of 1920s – economic depression spreads throughout world o Misplaced optimism? 09/08/16 Patterns of Imperialism   Proud to be imperialist   British Empire in 1914 – Major naval bases all over the world (largest imperial empire)  French Empire 1914 – second largest empire (Africa, Asia)  Others include Italy, Germany, Portugal, Spain  Sources of Imperialist Impulse Why did a handful of powers acquire more than 1/3 of the land surface of the globe  between 1871 and 1914?  Missionary Zeath Converting the “Heathens”  o mid 19  Century Europe undergoes challenge undermining Christian faith   include scientific discoveries  biology, Darwin   Social Darwinism: Survival of the Fittest  o Herbert Spencer  o Struggle for survival within not only animals, but with humans   Racialism (Racial Theory) o Cecil Rhodes & Count Arthur de Gobineau  Rhodes argues white race is conquering because it’s superior politically,  economically, socially   Hero to white imperial powers (ex: South Africa)  Duty to educate non­whites “White Man’s Burden”  Expansion of European power into third world is a duty to lift  inferior races up   Geopolitics and Grand Strategy (Bases, Coaling Stations, “Chokepoints”) o Geopolitics: emphasized need to study link between geographical territories and  political systems…marriage of geography and political science  o If a country is to remain a great power, it must expand power throughout the  globe   Transformation of transportation: steam power   No longer have to depend on wind to sail   Coal as a source of energy   Expanding Naval power: access to coal and global naval bases   Chokepoints: operate in “narrows”   Ex: Gibraltar, Suez   A Geopolitics Theorist of Land Power o Sir Mackinder: Control of the world depends on who controls “Heartland”  (Eurasia)   Control of this territory = control of world island   The Theorist of Sea Power  o Captain Alfred T. Mahan   “The Influence of Sea Power Upon History” 1890  the future depends on sea/naval power   capable of projecting power far from its own shores w/ navy   U.S. will lose out if it doesn’t have strong navy   “Navalism”   The Economic Dimension  o Vladimir Lenin   Writes “Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism” during WWI in  1916  Leader of Russian Bolshevik Party  Forget about religion and geopolitical conflict; imperial powers expand for purely economic reasons  o As a result of Industrial Revolution capital accumulates; a lot of money floating  around   Lenin argues that surplus of capital results in “choking”   Dramatic decline in interest rates   Too much of anything, price/demand decreases  Why imperial powers seize control = markets for investing   Markets, Food, Energy, and Raw Materials  o Guaranteed sources  Case Studies/Examples of Imperialist Expansion Foreign Spheres of Influence in China  Indirect imperialism  o Allow indigenous government to exist, buthseverelthrestrict it o Major imperial powers in China late 19 /early 29  centuries:  British  Russian  Japanese  French  German  Portuguese  o Within spheres, power has economic control   U.S. Demands on “Open Door” in China 1900 o Secy. Of State John Hay tells European powers to create level playing field o All countries should have equal opportunity to invest, trade, do business with  China  o U.S. is fast becoming premier industrial world power   Treaty Ports and Extraterritoriality Customs Supervision  o Chinese nationalists question outside power to control ports o Extraterritoriality: legal disputes handled by non­Chinese courts   Extraterritorial rights   “Chinese govt unable to maintain order” – justification  o imperial powers decide that when China defaults they take control of customs  houses and use customs proceeds to pay off debt   Missionary Activity in China  o Humanitarian mission: help the people  Education, hospitals   Positive side of imperialism  o Convert to Christianity   Universalistic religion: “only faith brings one to heaven”  Hints of Anti­Imperialist Sentiment: The Boxer Rebellion of 1900 o Empress Dowager of China Tsu Hsi doesn’t have control over country o Boxers: “Fists of Righteous Harmony” martial arts experts  Launch rebellion against missionaries  First example to intense Chinese nationalism   The Foreign Powers Intervene  o Allied Troops suppress rebellion in 1900 o Example of international cooperation to protect interests   China’s Last Emperor and the Revolution of 1911­1912 o Dynasty overthrown  o Replaced by “republican” Sun Yat­Sen  Country controlled by local leaders  The Crown Jewel of the Empire: the British Raj in India  Established indirect rule once they gained control  o Allow local leaders/princes to control majority of land o Subsidize leaders as long as they allow BR to extract economic resources  o Going to cooperate with BR and allow them to raise troops  Development of actual Indian Army  Imperialism in Africa  Major colonial powers include: o British o French o German o Portuguese o Italian o Belgian o Spanish   Only two independent countries: o Liberia and Abyssinia  The Age of Imperialism: The Colossus of Rhodes  Cape Town to Cairo Empire  o British control everything between Cairo and Cape Town  The Boer War (1899­1902) o Orange Free State  Farmers, not industrialists   Create language of Afrikaans   Gold/diamonds are discovered – British follow  Conflict with rural farming population  o Boer war was international humiliation to British empire   BR win eventually   Boer War Protagonist  o Lord Kitchener   Boers use guerilla warfare   British troops outnumber Boers 4:1 o Not in good physical shape   A new organization is born o Sir Robert Baden­Powell established Boy Scouts to train young boys how to  survive in wilderness  Conflicts Develop Between Colonial Powers   BR and FR almost go to war in 1899   Germany was jealous   European powers are bumping into one another as they expand 


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